Gehrs BC, Friedberg RC, 2002. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Am J Hematol 69: 258–271.
Sève P, Philippe P, Dufour JF, Broussolle C, Michel M, 2008. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: classification and therapeutic approaches. Expert Rev Hematol 1: 189–204.
Coburn RJ, England JM, Samson DM, Walford DM, Blowers R, Chanarin I, Levi AJ, Slavin G, 1973. Tuberculosis and blood disorders. Br J Haematol 25: 793–799.
Glasser RM, Walker RI, Walker RI, 1970. The significance of hematologic abnormalities in patients with tuberculosis. Arch Intern Med 125: 691–695.
Cameron SJ, 1974. Tuberculosis and the blood—a special relationship? Tubercle 55: 55–72.
Berkowitz FE, 1991. Hemolysis and infection: categories and mechanisms of their interrelationship. Rev Infect Dis 13: 1151–1162.
Hill QA, Stamps R, Massey E, Grainger JD, Provan D, Hill A, 2017. The diagnosis and management of primary autoimmune hemolytic anaemia. Br J Haematol 176: 395–411.
Berentsen S, 2020. New insights in the pathogenesis and therapy of cold agglutinin-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Front Immunol 11: 590.
Berentsen S, Tjønnfjord GE, 2012. Diagnosis and treatment of cold agglutinin mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Blood Rev 26: 107–115.
Adigun R, Singh R, 2022. Tuberculosis. Tampa, FL: StatPearls Publishing [Internet]. PMID:28722945.
Rathish D, Siribaddana S, 2018. Tuberculosis-induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia: a systematic review to find out common clinical presentations, investigation findings and the treatment options. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 14: 11.
Shah M, Reed C, 2014. Complications of tuberculosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 27: 403–410.
Klein HG, Anstee DJ, 2014. Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine, 12th edition. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Jäger U et al., 2020. Diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in adults: recommendations from the First International Consensus Meeting. Blood Rev 41: 100648.
Hill QA, Stamps R, Massey E, Grainger JD, Provan D, Hill A, 2017. Guidelines on the management of drug-induced immune and secondary autoimmune, haemolytic anaemia. Br J Haematol 177: 208–220.
Petz LD, 1983. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Hum Pathol 14: 251–255.
Dussadee K, Taka Bsc O, Thedsawad Msc A, Wanachiwanawin W, 2010. Incidence and risk factors of relapses in idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia. J Med Assoc Thai 93 (Suppl 1): S165–S170.
Garvey B, 2008. Rituximab in the treatment of autoimmune haematological disorders. Br J Haematol 141: 149–169.
Berentsen S, 2007. Rituximab for the treatment of autoimmune cytopenias. Haematologica 92: 1589–1596.
Narat S, Gandla J, Hoffbrand AV, Hughes RG, Mehta AB, 2005. Rituximab in the treatment of refractory autoimmune cytopenias in adults. Haematologica 90: 1273–1274.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||44||44||24|
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that affects different organs, causing multiple complications, including hematological sequelae. One of the most common TB-hematological complications is anemia of chronic disease. Very rarely autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been reported as an uncommon manifestation of TB. In this case, we present a female who presented with refractory AIHA, which was attributed to disseminated TB. The patient responded well to steroids, anti-TB medications, and rituximab.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Disclosure: This article was approved by Hamad Medical Corporation Medical Research Center. This research was conducted ethically in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Authors’ addresses: Seham M. Alebbi, Department of Medical Education, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Aalaa Kambal, Clinical Imaging Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, E-mail: email@example.com. Hayan Abo Samra and Mouhammad Z. Sharaf Eldean, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Shehab Fareed Mohamed, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Shaikha D. Al-Shokri, Department of Medical Education, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar and Department of Internal Medicine, Case Western Reserve University–MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, E-mail: email@example.com.