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Epidemiological Characteristics and Factors Associated with Cure of Leprosy in Chongqing, China, from 1949 to 2019

Yunna WangSchool of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City, China;

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Dayong XiaoChongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chongqing City, China;

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Mingyue WuInformation Center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Liyuan QingSchool of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City, China;

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Tong YangSchool of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City, China;

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Peng XiaoChongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chongqing City, China;

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Dan DengSchool of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City, China;

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ABSTRACT.

Chongqing is one of the focuses of leprosy control in China. Although leprosy control in Chongqing has achieved remarkable results over the years, there are also some problems, such as recurrent epidemics and insufficient early detection in some areas. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of leprosy in Chongqing, from 1949 to 2019 and explore the potential factors sociated with cure of leprosy to provide a basis for improving leprosy prevention and treatment strategies in Chongqing. Epidemiological indicators such as incidence and prevalence rates were used to evaluate the prevalence of leprosy. The epidemiological characteristics and control situation of leprosy in patients were analyzed using demographic characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment. Survival analysis was conducted to explore factors associated with the cure of leprosy. From 1949 to 2019, 3,703 cases of leprosy were registered in Chongqing. The incidence of leprosy in the city peaked at 0.853/105 in 1960 and remained below 0.100/105 after 2003. The number of high incidence areas decreased significantly, but they were mainly concentrated in the northeast and southeast regions. The early detection rate increased yearly from 1949 to 2019, and the rate of grade 2 disability ranged from 38.2% to 21.7%, with a fluctuating downward trend after 1960. Male, young age, employment as a farmer, delayed diagnosis, and multibacillary leprosy were risk factors for leprosy cure. Chongqing should continue to strengthen leprosy monitoring to improve the early detection of leprosy and focus on sociated risk factors to carry out multiple strategies.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Dan Deng, School of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, No.1, Medical College Rd., Yuzhong District, Chongqing City 400016, China. E-mail: 100079@cqmu.edu.cn

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Financial support: Publication of this article was funded by Chongqing Basic Research and Frontier Exploration Project (cstc2018jcyjA0135).

Authors’ addresses: Yunna Wang, Liyuan Qing, Tong Yang, and Dan Deng, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City, China, E-mails: 2020121421@stu.cqmu.edu.cn, 942931075@qq.com, 850084969@qq.com, and 100079@cqmu.edu.cn. Dayong Xiao and Peng Xiao, Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chongqing City, China, E-mail: 287496294@qq.com and 279655729@qq.com. Mingyue Wu, Information Center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, E-mail: 1576910589@qq.com.

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