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Bacterial infections pose a global threat, especially in the pediatric population. Antimicrobials that are used to treat such infections continuously show reduced efficacy, and empirical therapy is a major treatment option in Rwanda. This study aimed to determine the resistance rate of commonly used antibiotics in pediatric patients. The study was conducted from June 1, 2018 to May 30, 2019, and microbiological samples were collected from 712 children with suspected bacterial infections. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed on 177 positive cultures (24%) that were considered for data analysis. The findings show that the major bacterial isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 50, 28.2%), Escherichia coli (n = 47, 26.5%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 38, 21.4%). In general, the greatest antibiotic resistance rate was observed in ampicillin (n = 125, 86.2%), amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (n = 84, 82.4%), amoxicillin (n = 64, 79%), cefadroxil (n = 83, 69.2%), tetracycline (n = 72, 59.7%), ceftazidime (n = 42, 55.3%), and cefuroxime (n = 14, 53.8%). More specifically, Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Staphylococcus aureus was 86.7% resistant to ampicillin, and Escherichia coli was 91.7% resistant to tetracycline, 90.6% resistant to ampicillin, 83.3% resistant to amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, 79.3% resistant to cefadroxil, and 78.6% resistant to ceftazidime. Moreover, Klebsiella pneumoniae from blood and urine was 96.8% and 100% sensitive, respectively, to meropenem. Staphylococcus aureus from blood was 100% sensitive to vancomycin, whereas Escherichia coli from urine was sensitive to clindamycin (100%), nitrofurantoin (80.6%), and ciprofloxacin (72.7%). In conclusion, our findings show a high resistance rate to commonly used antibiotics, which suggests precaution in empirical therapy and continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.
Authors’ addresses: Jean Bosco Munyemana and Emile Musoni, Department of Clinical Biology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda, and Department of Pathology, University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Bright Gatare, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Fundamental Sciences, INES-Ruhengeri, Ruhengeri, Rwanda, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Pauline Kabanyana, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda, E-mail: email@example.com. Andrew Ivang, Department of Clinical Biology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Djibril Mbarushimana and Innocent Itangishaka, Department of Pathology, University Teaching Hospital of Butare, Butare, Rwanda, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Jean Damascene Niringiyumukiza, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Teaching Hospital of Butare, Butare, Rwanda, E-mail: email@example.com.