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Autochthonous leishmaniasis cases have been increasing continuously in Thailand over the years. We report multiple presentations of leishmaniasis in a 47-year-old patient with HIV/AIDS from Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. Physical examination showed multiple ulcerated papules, nodules, and plaques in a sporotrichoid distribution. Firm mucosal nodules on the hard palate and nasal opening, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy were found. Histopathological examination of the biopsies revealed an inflammatory infiltrate containing intramacrophage amastigotes compatible with Leishmania infection. In addition, Leishmania promastigotes were isolated successfully from the palatal biopsy and assigned the code MHOM/TH/2022/CULE6. Using internal transcribed spacer 1 polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, the causative parasite was identified as Leishmania martiniquensis. A definitive diagnosis of multiform leishmaniasis with disseminated cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral involvement was established. The patient was administered intravenous amphotericin B 1 mg/kg/d for 2 weeks, followed by oral itraconazole 400 mg daily. At the 2-month follow-up, the cutaneous and mucosal lesions had improved significantly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous involvement caused by L. martiniquensis in an immunocompromised patient with HIV/AIDS. In addition, we provide a literature review of leishmaniasis cases, reported formally in Thailand, resulting from this autochthonous parasite.
Authors’ addresses: Saranya Srivarasat, Nopadon Noppakun, Pravit Asawanonda, and Chanat Kumtornrut, Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Narisa Brownell, Padet Siriyasatien, and Kanok Preativatanyou, Center of Excellence in Vector Biology and Vector-Borne Disease, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Krittaya Rattanakorn, Division of Dermatology, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand, E-mail: email@example.com.