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This study explored the environmental determinants of different months on snail density measured in April at different types of snail habitats (marshlands, inner embankments, and hills) by considering spatial effects. Data were gathered from surveys on snails that were conducted in Hunan Province in April 2016, and information was collected on environmental variables. To investigate the environmental factors influencing snail density in various types of snail habitats, the ordinary least square model, spatial lag model, and spatial error model were all used. The environmental determinants for snail density showed different effects in the three types of snail habitats. In marshlands, snail density measured in April was associated positively with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and was associated negatively with flooding duration and annual hours of sunshine. Extreme temperatures correlated strongly to snail density measured in April (P < 0.05). In areas inside embankments, snail density measured in April increased with a decreased distance between snail habitat and the nearest river (P < 0.05). In hills, extreme heat, annual hours of sunshine, NDVI in September, and annual average land surface temperature (LST) were associated negatively with snail density measured in April, whereas index of moisture (IM) was associated positively with snail density measured in April (P < 0.05). The effects of LST and hours of sunshine on snail density measured in April varied with months of the year in the three different types of snail habitats (P < 0.05). Our study might provide a theoretical foundation for preventing snail transmission and subsequent spread of schistosomiasis.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Financial support: This study received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81673236).
Authors’ addresses: Yingyan Zheng, Fudan University School of Public Health, Shanghai, China, Department of Scientific Research, Children’s Hospital of Fudan University, National Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai, China, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China, and Fudan University Center for Tropical Disease Research, Shanghai, China, E-mail: email@example.com. Ying Shi, Fudan University School of Public Health, Shanghai, China, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China, Fudan University Center for Tropical Disease Research, Shanghai, China, and Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Shengming Li, Weicheng Deng, Jie Zhou, and Benjiao Hu, Hunan Institute for Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, China, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Honglin Jiang, Na Zhang, Zhengzhong Wang, Ying Xiong, Qingwu Jiang, and Yibiao Zhou, Fudan University School of Public Health, Shanghai, China, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China, and Fudan University Center for Tropical Disease Research, Shanghai, China, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Yue Chen, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, E-mail: email@example.com.