World Health Organization , 2021. World Malaria Report 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/teams/global-malaria-programme/reports/world-malaria-report-2021. Accessed May 4, 2022.
Singh N, Singh OP, Sharma VP, 1996. Dynamics of malaria transmission in forested and deforested region of Mandla district, Central India, Madhya Pradesh. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 12: 225–234.
Sharma RK , Thakor HG , Saha KB , Sonal GS , Dhariwal AC , Singh N , 2015. Malaria situation in India with special reference to tribal areas. Indian J Med Res 141: 537–545.
Ranjha R , Sharma A , 2021. Forest malaria: the prevailing obstacle for malaria control and elimination in India. BMJ Glob Health 6: e005391.
Chaturvedi R , Deora N , Bhandari D , Parvez S , Sinha A , Sharma A , 2020. Trends of neglected Plasmodium species infection in humans over the past century in India. One Health 11: 100190.
World Health Organization , 2016. Malaria Microscopy Quality Assurance Manual: version 2. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Benstein R , 1962. DPIP decolourisation test for G6PD deficiency. Nature 194: 192.
Kumar G , Singh RK , 2016. Situation analysis of malaria in Delhi. Int J Mosq Res 3: 36–39.
Anvikar AR et al., 2016. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax malaria in India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95: 108–120.
Santos-Vega M , Bouma MJ , Kohli V , Pascual M , 2016. Population density, climate variables and poverty synergistically structure spatial risk in urban malaria in India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0005155.
Kerr-Wilson CO , Mackay DF , Smith GC , Pell JP , 2012. Meta-analysis of the association between preterm delivery and intelligence. J Public Health (Oxf) 34: 209–216.
Naing C , Whittaker MA , Nyunt Wai V , Mak JW , 2014. Is Plasmodium vivax malaria a severe malaria? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3071.
Anvikar AR et al., 2020. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Gujarat, India. Virulence 11: 730–738.
Kojom Foko LP , Arya A , Sharma A , Singh V , 2021. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in India. J Infect 82: 231–246.
Rahi M , Sharma A , 2021. Free market availability of rapid diagnostics will empower communities to control malaria in India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 105: 281–283.
Rahi M , Das P , Sharma A , 2021. Malaria elimination in India requires additional surveillance mechanisms. J Public Health (Oxf) 44: 227–231.
Pal Bhowmick I et al., 2021. Validation of a mobile health technology platform (FeverTracker) for malaria surveillance in India: development and usability study. JMIR Form Res 5: e28951.
Rahi M , Sharma A , 2022. Active engagement of private healthcare providers is needed to propel malaria elimination in India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 106: 1585–1588.
Addisu A , Tegegne Y , Mihiret Y , Setegn A , Zeleke AJA , 2020. 7-Year trend of malaria at primary health facilities in northwest Ethiopia. J Parasitol Res 2020: 4204987.
Alemu A , Muluye D , Mihret M , Adugna M , Gebeyaw M , 2012. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, northwest Ethiopia. Parasit Vectors 5: 173.
Derbie A , Alemu M , 2017. Five years malaria trend analysis in Woreta Health Center, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci 27: 465–472.
Dabaro D , Birhanu Z , Yewhalaw D , 2020. Analysis of trends of malaria from 2010 to 2017 in Boricha District, southern Ethiopia. Malar J 19: 88.
Feleke DG , Gebretsadik D , Gebreweld A , 2018. Analysis of the trend of malaria prevalence in Ataye, North Shoa, Ethiopia between 2013 and 2017. Malar J 17: 323.
Gebretsadik D , Feleke DG , Fiseha M , 2018. Eight-year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kombolcha, South Wollo, North-Central Ethiopia: a retrospective study. Parasit Vectors 11: 55.
Berhe B , Mardu F , Legese H , Negash H , 2019. Seasonal distribution and seven year trend of malaria in North West Tigrai: 2012–2018, Ethiopia. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 15.
Alkadir S , Gelana T , Gebresilassie A , 2020. A five year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Guba District, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, western Ethiopia: a retrospective study. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 6: 18.
Baharia RK , Yadav CP , Sharma A , 2021. Four decades of epidemiological data reveal trajectories towards malaria elimination in Kheda District (Gujarat), western part of India. BMJ Glob Health 6: e005815.
Kevin Baird J , 2013. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax: recurrent, difficult to treat, disabling, and threatening to life—averting the infectious bite preempts these hazards. Pathog Glob Health 107: 475–479.
Ahmad SS , Rahi M , Sharma A , 2021. Relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria threaten disease elimination: time to deploy tafenoquine in India? BMJ Glob Health 6: e004558.
Kumar V et al., 2014. Forecasting malaria cases using climatic factors in Delhi, India: a time series analysis. Malar Res Treat 2014: 1–6.
Manh BH et al., 2011. Social and environmental determinants of malaria in space and time in Viet Nam. Int J Parasitol 41: 109–116.
Smith DL , Dushoff J , McKenzie FE , 2004. The risk of a mosquito-borne infection in a heterogeneous environment. PLoS Biol 2: e368.
Kumar P , Vatsa R , Sarthi PP , Kumar M , Gangare V , 2020. Modeling an association between malaria patients and climate variables for Keonjhar District of Odisha, India: a Bayesian approach. J Parasit Dis 44: 319–331.
Paaijmans KP , Blanford S , Bell AS , Blanford JI , Read AF , Thomas MB , 2010. Influence of climate on malaria transmission depends on daily temperature variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107: 15135–15139.
Reiter P , 2001. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease. Environ Health Perspect 109 (Suppl 1):141–161.
Loevinsohn ME , 1994. Climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda. Lancet 343: 714–718.
Briët OJ , Vounatsou P , Gunawardena DM , Galappaththy GN , Amerasinghe PH , 2008. Temporal correlation between malaria and rainfall in Sri Lanka. Malar J 7: 1–14.
Lauderdale JM et al., 2014. Towards seasonal forecasting of malaria in India. Malar J 13: 1–20.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||38||38||2|
It is important to study the recent malaria incidence trends in urban areas resulting from rapid urbanization that can lead to changes in environmental conditions for malaria. This retrospective study assessed trends in malaria patients, their distribution according to parasite species, patient demographics, and weather data for the past 8 years at a malaria clinic in the National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India. We overlaid the effects of environmental factors such as rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature on malaria incidence. The malaria data were digitized for a period spanning 2012 to 2019, during which 36,892 patients with fever attended the clinic. Of these, 865 (2.3%) were diagnosed with malaria microscopically. Plasmodium vivax was predominant (96.2%), and very few patients were of Plasmodium falciparum (3.5%) or mixed infections (0.3%). The patients with malaria were within a 10-km radius of the clinic. Males (70.9%) were more commonly affected than females (29.1%). Of the total malaria patients, a majority (∼78%) belonged to the > 15-year age group. A total of 593 malaria patients (68.6%) received primaquine. These patients were most commonly diagnosed in April through October. Furthermore, there was a lag of 1 month between the rainfall peak and the malaria case peak. The peak in malaria cases corresponded to a mean temperature of 25 to 30°C and a relative humidity of 60% to 80%. This analysis will be useful for policymakers in evaluating current interventions and in accelerating malaria control further in urban areas of India.
Financial support: We thank the Department of Science and Technology for the JC Bose fellowship to A. S.
Authors’ addresses: Nitika and Bina Srivastava, National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Poonam Saroha, National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India, and Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research, Uttar Pradesh, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Amit Sharma, National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India, Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research, Uttar Pradesh, India, and Molecular Medicine, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India, E-mail: email@example.com.