Barros FC , Victora CG , Scherphier R , Gwatkin D , 2010. Socioeconomic inequities in the health and nutrition of children in low/middle income countries. Rev Saude Publica 44: 1–16.
Desai S , Dubey A , 2012. Caste in the 21st century: competing narratives. Econ Polit Wkly 46: 40–49.
Shrivastwa N , Wagner AL , Boulton ML , 2019. Analysis of state-specific differences in childhood vaccination coverage in rural India. Vaccines (Basel) 7: 24.
Mathew JL , 2012. Inequity in childhood immunization in India: a systematic review. Indian Pediatr 49: 203–223.
Mathew JL , Patel PN , Wagner AL , Suri V , Bharti B , Carlson BF , Boulton ML , 2021. Analysis of reasons for loss to follow up in a prospective study in Chandigarh, India and impact from telecom changes. BMC Res Notes 14: 419.
World Health Organization , 2016. Child Growth Standards. Available at: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/en/. Accessed June 13, 2016.
Seeman T , Epel E , Gruenewald T , Karlamangla A , Mcewen BS , 2010. Socio-economic differentials in peripheral biology: cumulative allostatic load. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1186: 223–239.
Augustine LF , Nair KM , Rao SF , Rao MVV , Ravinder P , Laxmaiah A , 2016. Exploring the bio-behavioural link between stress, allostatic load & micronutrient status: a cross-sectional study among adolescent boys. Indian J Med Res 144: 378–384.
Arlappa N , Laxmaiah A , Balakrishna N , Harikumar R , Brahmam GNV , 2008. Clinical and sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra, India. Ann Hum Biol 35: 606–614.
Benn CS , 2012. Combining vitamin A and vaccines: convenience or conflict? Dan Med J 59: B4378.
Cox FEG , 2001. Concomitant infections, parasites and immune responses. Parasitology 122: S23–S38.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||1102||1102||2|
Measles affects those of lower socioeconomic status disproportionately. This study evaluated the impact of measles vaccination on antibody titers 3 months after vaccination across different socioeconomic groups, with a focus on caste. In total, 169 infants in Chandigarh, India, had serum samples collected immediately prior to vaccination at 9 months of age and 3 months later. Overall, 126 infants (76%) were seropositive (antibody titers > 12 mIU/mL), 26 (16%) were borderline (8–12 mIU/mL), and 14 (8%) were seronegative (< 8 mIU/mL). Seropositivity (versus borderline/seronegative infants) was 0.78 times as high among individuals from the historically marginalized scheduled castes/scheduled tribes compared with the others caste grouping (95% CI, 0.62–0.98). Antibody response was not tied to anthropometric measures but was attenuated among scheduled castes/scheduled tribes with higher incomes. This study provides observational evidence that social structures can be associated with individual immune responses.
Financial support: This work was funded by a gift to the University of Michigan from Ranvir Trehan and the Trehan Family Foundation to support public health research in India.
Authors’ addresses: Abram L. Wagner and Bradley F. Carlson, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Joseph L. Mathew and Bhavneet Bharti, Advanced Pediatrics Center, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Aparna G. Kachoria, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, E-mail: email@example.com. Vanita Suri, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, PGIMER Chandigarh, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Matthew L. Boulton, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, and Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, E-mail: email@example.com.