• 1.

    Sutton-Fitzpatrick U , Grant C , Nashev Di , Fleming C , 2019. Corynebacterium diphtheriae bloodstream infection: The role of antitoxin. BMJ Case Rep 12: e231914. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-231914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Plotkin S , Orenstein W , Offit P , Kathryn ME , 2018. Chapter 19 of Plotkin’s Vaccines - 7th Edition.: 261.

  • 3.

    Shanmugam L , Priyadarshi K , Kumaresan M , Sivaradjy M , Upadhyay P , Elamurugan T , Sastry AS , 2021. A rare case report of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae bloodstream infection in an uncontrolled diabetic with peripheral vascular disease. Cureus 13. doi: 10.7759/cureus.14947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Deshpande A , Inkster T , Hamilton K , Litt D , Fry N , Kennedy ITR , Shookhye-Dickson J , Hill RLR , 2015. Colonisation with toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a Scottish burns patient. Euro Surveill 20: 30088.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    CLSI , 2015. M45. Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Proposed Guideline.

  • 6.

    Wojewoda CM , Koval CE , Wilson DA , Chakos MH , Harrington SM , 2012. Bloodstream infection caused by nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in an immunocompromised host in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 50: 21702172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bennett JE , Dolin R , Blaser MJ , 2014. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. doi: 10.1016/s1473-3099(10)70089-x.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Zasada AA , Zaleska M , Podlasin RB , Seferyńska I , 2005. The first case of septicemia due to nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Poland: case report. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 4: 13.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Tiley SM , Kociuba KR , Heron LG , Munro R , 1993. Infective endocarditis due to nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae: report of seven cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 16: 271275.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Lolekha R , Kirawittaya T , Chotpitayasunondh T , Supradish P , Srimaharaja S , 2003. Subacute infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai 86: S696S700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Barakett V , Bellaich G , Petit JC , 1992. Fatal septicemia due to a toxigenic strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae subspecies mitis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 11: 761762.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Pennie RA , Malik AS , Wilcox L , 1996. Misidentification of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae as a Corynebacterium species with low virulence in a child with endocarditis. J Clin Microbiol 34: 12751276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Will RC , Ramamurthy T , Sharma NC , Veeraraghavan B , Sangal L , Haldar P , Pragasam AK , Vasudevan K , Kumar D , Das B , Heinz E , Melnikov V , Baker S , Sangal V , Dougan G , Mutreja A , 2021. Spatiotemporal persistence of multiple, diverse clades and toxins of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Nat Commun 12: 1500. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21870-5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 5730 5730 1898
Full Text Views 52 52 18
PDF Downloads 30 30 14
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Case Report: Bloodstream Infection with Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Gram-Negative Sepsis in a Child with Burns

Imola JamirDepartment of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India;

Search for other papers by Imola Jamir in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Priyadarshi KetanDepartment of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India;

Search for other papers by Priyadarshi Ketan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Symphonia AngurajDepartment of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India;

Search for other papers by Symphonia Anguraj in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lulu JahanDepartment of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India;

Search for other papers by Lulu Jahan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Narayanan ParameswaranDepartment of Paediatrics, JIPMER, Puducherry, India

Search for other papers by Narayanan Parameswaran in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rajeswari Rethinaswamy DivakarjoseDepartment of Paediatrics, JIPMER, Puducherry, India

Search for other papers by Rajeswari Rethinaswamy Divakarjose in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Apurba Sankar SastryDepartment of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India;

Search for other papers by Apurba Sankar Sastry in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

Corynebacterium (C.) diphtheriae is the agent for a contagious infection, diphtheria. It may manifest as pharyngitis with pseudomembrane formation and cervical lymphadenopathy, cutaneous infection, or as an asymptomatic carrier. Corynebacterium (C.) diphtheriae is not an invasive organism and it remains in the superficial layers of skin lesions and respiratory mucosa. Systemic complications, such as bacteremia, are rare. We report a case of toxigenic C. diphtheriae detected from blood culture of a 1-year-old male patient with burns, who succumbed to the infection after 8 days of stay in the hospital. Patient did not have specific clinical features suggestive of diphtheria. Initial identification of C. diphtheriae was done based on culture, Albert stain findings, biochemical tests and subsequently toxigenicity testing was done by polymerase chain reaction. Although diphtheria vaccination in infancy is universally recommended since the creation of the Expanded Program on Immunization in the 1970s, there have been reports of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae in a considerable number of cases. Rapid and accurate identification of C. diphtheriae infection is crucial to prevent mortality. Continued surveillance for diphtheria is needed to reduce transmission and mortality rates.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Apurba Sankar Sastry, Department of Microbiology, JIPMER, Dhanvantari Nagar, Puducherry, India. E-mail: drapurbasastry@gmail.com

Authors’ addresses: Imola Jamir, Priyadarshi Ketan, Symphonia Anguraj, Lulu Jahan, and Apurba Sankar Sastry, Department of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India, E-mails: imolajamir3@gmail.com, ketprirule@gmail.com, symphonia640@gmail.com, lulujahanp1792@gmail.com, and drapurbasastry@gmail.com. Narayanan Parameswaran and Rajeswari Rethinaswamy Divakarjose, Department of Paediatrics, JIPMER, Puducherry, India, E-mails: narayanan.p@jipmer.edu.in and dashingdivakar@gmail.com.

Save