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Comparison of Seizure Characteristics and Recurrence Rates in Children with Viable Parenchymal Neurocysticercosis and Tuberculoma in India

Prateek Kumar PandaPediatric Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India;

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Aparna RamachandranDepartment of Neurology, IQRAA International Hospital & Research Centre, Kozhikode, Kerala, India;

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Indar Kumar SharawatPediatric Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India;

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Poonam SherwaniDepartment of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India;

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Nowneet Kumar BhatDepartment of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India

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ABSTRACT.

Inflammatory granulomas (neurocysticercosis [NCC] and tuberculomas) are important causes of seizures in children and adults in the developing world. Although several studies have explored seizure characteristics individually in patients with either NCC or tuberculoma, none has compared the seizure recurrence rate between them. This study included patients aged 5 to 18 years with viable parenchymal NCC or tuberculomas who had completed regular follow-up of at least 12 months at a tertiary institute in India. Their baseline seizure and electroencephalographic characteristics, antiseizure medications (ASMs), and breakthrough seizure rates at 12, 24, and 52 weeks were noted. A total of 103 and 54 patients with active NCC and tuberculomas respectively were included. The number of patients who had at least one breakthrough seizure at 12, 24, and 52 weeks in both groups was comparable (P = 0.32, 0.27, and 0.13), and the vast majority were controlled on monotherapy (98% cases in each group). The proportion of patients who required an increase in the dose or change of ASMs or polytherapy, the proportion of children who had status epilepticus at or before 12 months, abnormal electroencephalogram at 12 months, and calcified and active granuloma in neuroimaging at 12 months were also comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05 for all). The number of patients who had ASM-related adverse events and discontinued ASM due to serious adverse events was comparable between both groups, except for hepatotoxicity in the tuberculoma group. The predictors for breakthrough seizures that were found to be statistically significant in the NCC group were the presence of perilesional edema in the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.02) and more than five active granulomas (P = 0.01); predictors in the tuberculoma group were the presence of severe perilesional edema causing midline shift in the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.01) and more than five active granulomas (P = 0.04). The recurrence rates of breakthrough seizures over the next 12 months in newly detected cases of active NCC and tuberculomas were comparable.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Indar Kumar Sharawat, Pediatric Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India 249203. E-mail: sharawatdrindar@gmail.com

These authors contributed equally to this work and share joint first authorship.

Authors’ addresses: Prateek Kumar Panda and Indar Kumar Sharawat, Pediatric Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India, E-mail: drprateekpanda@gmail.com and sherawatdrindar@gmail.com. Aparna Ramachandran, Department of Neurology, IQRAA International Hospital & Research Centre, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, E-mail: aparna1234567@gmail.com. Poonam Sherwani, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India, E-mail: sherwanipoonam@gmail.com. Nowneet Kumar Bhat, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India.

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