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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health concern in the Indian state of Bihar, which has been exacerbated by an increasing HIV/AIDS incidence that has resulted in poor clinical outcomes. So far, there has been no investigation into the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of people who have been subjected to hospital-based supervision for VL or HIV/VL co-infection. This study assessed the KAP toward VL infection among 210 VL-infected patients (126 participants with VL and 84 participants with HIV/VL) using a pretested standard questionnaire. The findings are summarized descriptively and KAP scores are classified dichotomously (good/poor). Multivariable logistic regression and bivariate correlation were used in the analysis. The study showed that both VL-infected and co-infected patients exhibited similar deficits in KAP scores toward VL. The HIV/VL participants who had a personal or family history of VL were more likely to have appropriate awareness of and preventive practices toward VL. The independent predictors of attitude index in HIV/VL participants were education, VL family history, and marital status. There was a weak but significant positive correlation between knowledge and practice (rs = 0.321, p<0.001), and attitude and practice (rs = 0.294, p<0.001), while knowledge was strongly correlated with attitude (rs = 0.634, p<0.001). Based on the study findings, it is recommended that treatment programs in Bihar should concentrate on strengthening KAP among VL and HIV/VL co-infected patients to prevent reinfection-related complications. Behavior change communication intervention is ideal for tackling this problem. This proposal entails building a comprehensive public health program in endemic regions.
Authors’ addresses: J. S. Devipriya, Garapati Pavan, Sameer Dhingra, Krishna Murti, and Velayutham Ravichandiran, Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Ashok Kumar Gupta, Department of Pharmacy, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India, E-mail: email@example.com. Krishna Pandey, Department of Clinical Medicine, Indian Council of Medical Research–Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agamkuan, Patna, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.