• 1.

    World Health Organization , 2021. Leishmaniasis. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/leishmaniasis. Accessed August 3, 2022.

  • 2.

    Wamai RG , Kahn J , McGloin J , Ziaggi G , 2020. Visceral leishmaniasis: a global overview. J Glob Heal Sci 2: 122.

  • 3.

    Pace D , 2014. Leishmaniasis. J Infect 69: S10S18.

  • 4.

    Burza S , Croft SL , Boelaert M , 2018. Leishmaniasis. Lancet 392: 951970.

  • 5.

    Burza S , Sinha PK , Mahajan R , Lima MA , Mitra G , Verma N , Balsegaram M , Das P , 2014. Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis relapse in immunocompetent patients following treatment with 20 mg/kg liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) in Bihar, India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: 44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Priyamvada K , Bindroo J , Sharma MP , Chapman LAC , Dubey P , Mahapatra T , Hightower AW , Bern C , Srikantiah S , 2021. Visceral leishmaniasis outbreaks in Bihar: community-level investigations in the context of elimination of kala-azar as a public health problem. Parasit Vectors 14: 111.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Sundar S , Singh OP , Chakravarty J , 2018. Visceral leishmaniasis elimination targets in India: strategies for preventing resurgence. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 16: 805812.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Melkamu HT , Beyene AM , Zegeye DT , 2020. Knowledge, attitude and practices of the resident community about visceral leishmaniasis in West Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia. Heliyon 6: e03152.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Varma N , Naseem S , 2010. Hematologic changes in visceral leishmaniasis/kala azar. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 26: 7882.

  • 10.

    Jervis S et al.2017. Variations in visceral leishmaniasis burden, mortality and the pathway to care within Bihar, India. Parasit Vectors 10: 601.

  • 11.

    Le Rutte EA et al.2017. Elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: a comparison of predictions from three transmission models. Epidemics 18: 6780.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Burza S et al.2014. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection in Bihar, India: long-term effectiveness and treatment outcomes with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cloots K , Marino P , Burza S , Gill N , Boelaert M , Hasker E , 2021. Visceral leishmaniasis-HIV coinfection as a predictor of increased leishmania transmission at the village level in Bihar, India. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 11: 17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Lauletta JA , Cunha MA , Queiroz IT , 2016. Leishmaniasis–HIV coinfection: current challenges. HIV AIDS (Auckl) 8: 147156.

  • 15.

    Alvar J , Aparicio P , Aseffa A , Den Boer M , Canavate C , Dedet JP , Gradoni L , Ter Horst R , López-Vélez R , Moreno J , 2008. The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 334359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Devipriya JS , Gupta AK , Veeri RB , Garapati P , Kumar R , Dhingra S , Murti K , Ravichandiran V , Pandey K , 2021. Knowledge, attitude and practices toward visceral leishmaniasis among HIV patients: a cross-sectional study from Bihar, India. PLoS One 16: e0256239.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Adriaensen W , Dorlo TPC , Vanham G , Kestens L , Kaye PM , van Griensven J , 2017. Immunomodulatory therapy of visceral leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected patients. Front Immunol 8: 1943.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Morales MA , Cruz I , Rubio JM , Chicharro C , Cañavate C , Laguna F , Alvar J , 2002. Relapses versus reinfections in patients coinfected with Leishmania infantum and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 185: 15331537.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Mohammed R , Fikre H , Schuster A , Mekonnen T , van Griensven J , Diro E , 2020. Multiple relapses of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV co-infected patients: a case series from Ethiopia. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 92: 100583.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Garapati P , Pal B , Siddiqui NA , Bimal S , Das P , Murti K , Pandey K , 2018. Knowledge, stigma, health seeking behaviour and its determinants among patients with post kalaazar dermal leishmaniasis, Bihar, India. PLoS One 13: e0203407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Siddiqui NA , Kumar N , Ranjan A , Pandey K , Das VNR , Verma RB , Das P , 2010. Awareness about kala-azar disease and related preventive attitudes and practices in a highly endemic rural area of India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41: 112.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Alemu A , Alemu A , Esmael N , Dessie Y , Hamdu K , Mathewos B , Birhan W , 2013. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis among residents in Addis Zemen town, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 13: 382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Singh SP , Reddy DC , Mishra RN , Sundar S , 2006. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to kala-azar in a rural area of Bihar state, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 505508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Akram A , Khan HA , Qadir A , Sabir AM , 2015. A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Punjab, Pakistan. PLoS One 10: e0130929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Sarkari B , Qasem A , Shafaf MR , 2014. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4: 566569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Berhe M , Bsrat A , Taddele H , Gadissa E , Hagos Y , Tekle Y , Abera A , 2018. Knowledge attitude and practice towards visceral leishmaniasis among residents and health professionals in Welkait district, western Tigray, Ethiopia. J Trop Dis 6: 257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Debroy S , Prosper O , Mishoe A , Mubayi A , 2017. Challenges in modeling complexity of neglected tropical diseases: a review of dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis in resource limited settings. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 14: 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Alharazi TH , Haouas N , Al-Mekhlafi HM , 2021. Knowledge and attitude toward cutaneous leishmaniasis among rural endemic communities in Shara’b District, Taiz, southwestern Yemen. BMC Infect Dis 21: 269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    World Health Organization , 2020. Independent Assessment of Kala-Azar Elimination Programme India, 9–20 December 2019, India. Available at: https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/searo/evaluation-reports/independent-assessment-of-kala-azar-elimination-programme-in-india.pdf?sfvrsn=fa0d8baa_2. Accessed August 3, 2022.

  • 30.

    Gelaye KA , Demissie GD , Ayele TA , Wami SD , Sisay MM , Akalu TY , Teshome DF , Wolde HF , 2020. Low knowledge and attitude toward visceral leishmaniasis among migrants and seasonal farm workers in Northwest Ethiopia. Res Rep Trop Med 11: 159.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Kebede N , Worku A , Ali A , Animut A , Negash Y , Gebreyes W , Satosker AM , 2016. Community knowledge, attitude and practice toward cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area Ochello, Gamogofa Zone, South Ethiopia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 6: 562567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Govil D , Sahoo H , Pedgaonkar SP , Chandra Das K , Lhungdim H , 2018. Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices related to kala-azar: a study of rural Madhepura, Bihar, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98: 857863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Harapan H et al.2018. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding dengue virus infection among inhabitants of Aceh, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis 18: 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 817 817 183
Full Text Views 34 34 15
PDF Downloads 33 33 10
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among HIV/Leishmaniasis Co-Infected Patients in Bihar, India

J. S. DevipriyaDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India;

Search for other papers by J. S. Devipriya in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ashok Kumar GuptaDepartment of Pharmacy, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India;

Search for other papers by Ashok Kumar Gupta in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Garapati PavanDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India;

Search for other papers by Garapati Pavan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sameer DhingraDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India;

Search for other papers by Sameer Dhingra in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Krishna MurtiDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India;

Search for other papers by Krishna Murti in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Velayutham RavichandiranDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India;

Search for other papers by Velayutham Ravichandiran in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Krishna PandeyDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Indian Council of Medical Research–Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agamkuan, Patna, India

Search for other papers by Krishna Pandey in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health concern in the Indian state of Bihar, which has been exacerbated by an increasing HIV/AIDS incidence that has resulted in poor clinical outcomes. So far, there has been no investigation into the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of people who have been subjected to hospital-based supervision for VL or HIV/VL co-infection. This study assessed the KAP toward VL infection among 210 VL-infected patients (126 participants with VL and 84 participants with HIV/VL) using a pretested standard questionnaire. The findings are summarized descriptively and KAP scores are classified dichotomously (good/poor). Multivariable logistic regression and bivariate correlation were used in the analysis. The study showed that both VL-infected and co-infected patients exhibited similar deficits in KAP scores toward VL. The HIV/VL participants who had a personal or family history of VL were more likely to have appropriate awareness of and preventive practices toward VL. The independent predictors of attitude index in HIV/VL participants were education, VL family history, and marital status. There was a weak but significant positive correlation between knowledge and practice (rs = 0.321, p<0.001), and attitude and practice (rs = 0.294, p<0.001), while knowledge was strongly correlated with attitude (rs = 0.634, p<0.001). Based on the study findings, it is recommended that treatment programs in Bihar should concentrate on strengthening KAP among VL and HIV/VL co-infected patients to prevent reinfection-related complications. Behavior change communication intervention is ideal for tackling this problem. This proposal entails building a comprehensive public health program in endemic regions.

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 48 KB)

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Krishna Pandey, Department of Clinical medicine ICMR-Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RMRIMS) Agamkuan, Patna-800007. E-mail: drkrishnapandey@yahoo.com

Authors’ addresses: J. S. Devipriya, Garapati Pavan, Sameer Dhingra, Krishna Murti, and Velayutham Ravichandiran, Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, India, E-mails: devijsgpat2013@gmail.com,pavangarapati9@gmail.com, sameerdhingra78@gmail.com, krishnamurti74@gmaill.com, and director@niperkolkata.edu.in. Ashok Kumar Gupta, Department of Pharmacy, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India, E-mail: ashokg195@gmail.com. Krishna Pandey, Department of Clinical Medicine, Indian Council of Medical Research–Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agamkuan, Patna, India, E-mail: drkrishnapandey@yahoo.com.

Save