Troeger C , Forouzanfar M , Rao PC , Khalil I , Brown A , Reiner RC Jr , Fullman N , Thompson RL , Abajobir A , Ahmed M , 2017. Estimates of global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Infect Dis 17: 909–948.
Julian TR , MacDonald LH , Guo Y , Marks SJ , Kosek M , Yori PP , Pinedo SR , Schwab KJ , 2013. Fecal indicator bacteria contamination of fomites and household demand for surface disinfection products: a case study from Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 869–872.
Pickering AJ , Julian TR , Marks SJ , Mattioli MC , Boehm AB , Schwab KJ , Davis J , 2012. Fecal contamination and diarrheal pathogens on surfaces and in soils among Tanzanian households with and without improved sanitation. Environ Sci Technol 46: 5736–5743.
Juberg DR , Alfano K , Coughlin RJ , Thompson KM , 2001. An observational study of object mouthing behavior by young children. Pediatrics 107: 135–142.
George CM , Oldja L , Biswas S , Perin J , Lee GO , Kosek M , Sack RB , Ahmed S , Haque R , Parvin T , 2015. Geophagy is associated with environmental enteropathy and stunting in children in rural Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 1117–1124.
George CM et al., 2021. Child hand contamination is associated with subsequent pediatric diarrhea in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo (REDUCE Program). Trop Med Int Health 26: 102–110.
Morita T , Perin J , Oldja L , Biswas S , Sack RB , Ahmed S , Haque R , Bhuiyan NA , Parvin T , Bhuyian SI , 2017. Mouthing of soil contaminated objects is associated with environmental enteropathy in young children. Trop Med Int Health 22: 670–678.
Parvez SM , Kwong L , Rahman MJ , Ercumen A , Pickering AJ , Ghosh PK , Rahman MZ , Das KK , Luby SP , Unicomb L , 2017. Escherichia coli contamination of child complementary foods and association with domestic hygiene in rural Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health 22: 547–557.
Tsou M-C , Özkaynak H , Beamer P , Dang W , Hsi H-C , Jiang C-B , Chien L-C , 2015. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months in Taiwan. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 25: 388–398.
Pickering AJ , Davis J , Walters SP , Horak HM , Keymer DP , Mushi D , Strickfaden R , Chynoweth JS , Liu J , Blum A , 2010. Hands, water, and health: fecal contamination in Tanzanian communities with improved, non-networked water supplies. Environ Sci Technol 44: 3267–3272.
Biswas SK , Thomas ED , Masud J , Zohura F , Hasan T , Parvin T , Bhuyian MSI , Minhaj MI , Johura F , Sultana M , 2020. Formative research for the design of a baby water, sanitation, and hygiene mobile health program in Bangladesh (CHoBI7 Mobile Health Program). Am J Trop Med Hyg 104: 357–371.
George CM , Monira S , Zohura F , Thomas ED , Hasan MT , Parvin T , Hasan K , Rashid M-u , Papri N , Islam A , 2020. Effects of a water, sanitation, and hygiene mobile health program on diarrhea and child growth in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the cholera hospital-based intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7) mobile health program. Clin Infect Dis 73: e2560–e2568.
Yakub GP , Castric DA , Stadterman-Knauer KL , Tobin MJ , Blazina M , Heineman TN , Yee GY , Frazier L , 2002. Evaluation of Colilert and Enterolert defined substrate methodology for wastewater applications. Water Environ Res 74: 131–135.
Julian TR , Islam MA , Pickering AJ , Roy S , Fuhrmeister ER , Ercumen A , Harris A , Bishai J , Schwab KJ , 2015. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from feces, hands, and soils in rural Bangladesh via the Colilert Quanti-Tray System. Appl Environ Microbiol 81: 1735–1743.
Pickering AJ , Ercumen A , Arnold BF , Kwong LH , Parvez SM , Alam M , Sen D , Islam S , Kullmann C , Chase C , 2018. Fecal indicator bacteria along multiple environmental transmission pathways (water, hands, food, soil, flies) and subsequent child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. Environ Sci Technol 52: 7928–7936.
Kuhl J , Bisimwa L , Thomas ED , Williams C , Ntakirutimana J , Coglianese N , Bauler S , François R , Sanvura P , Bisimwa JC , 2021. Formative research for the development of baby water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions for young children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (REDUCE program). BMC Public Health 21: 1–16.
Mbuya MN , Tavengwa NV , Stoltzfus RJ , Curtis V , Pelto GH , Ntozini R , Kambarami RA , Fundira D , Malaba TR , Maunze D , 2015. Design of an intervention to minimize ingestion of fecal microbes by young children in rural Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis 61: S703–S709.
Navab-Daneshmand T , Friedrich MN , Gächter M , Montealegre MC , Mlambo LS , Nhiwatiwa T , Mosler H-J , Julian TR , 2018. Escherichia coli contamination across multiple environmental compartments (soil, hands, drinking water, and handwashing water) in urban Harare: correlations and risk factors. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98: 803.
George CM , Cirhuza LB , Birindwa A , Williams C , Beck S , Julian T , Kuhl J , Coglianese N , Thomas E , Bauler S , 2021. Child hand contamination is associated with subsequent pediatric diarrhea in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo (REDUCE Program). Trop Med Int Health 26: 102–110.
George CM et al., 2015. Fecal markers of environmental enteropathy are associated with animal exposure and caregiver hygiene in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 269–275.
Ngure FM , Humphrey JH , Mbuya MN , Majo F , Mutasa K , Govha M , Mazarura E , Chasekwa B , Prendergast AJ , Curtis V , 2013. Formative research on hygiene behaviors and geophagy among infants and young children and implications of exposure to fecal bacteria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 709.
Dreibelbis R , Winch PJ , Leontsini E , Hulland KR , Ram PK , Unicomb L , Luby SP , 2013. The integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation, and hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings. BMC Public Health 13: 1–13.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||2418||2418||3|
The aim of this study was to identify the exposure pathways of fecal pathogens for a pediatric population living in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A total of 252 soil, food, surface, and hand rinse samples were collected from the pilot households with children less than 5 years of age. All samples were analyzed using the IDEXX Quanti-Tray System (Colilert-18) to enumerate fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli was detected in all soil samples collected from children play spaces (N = 46), 35% of objects and surfaces children frequently put in their mouths, and 31% of child food samples. Thirty-three percent of hand samples from the child and 46% of hand samples from the caregiver had detectable E. coli. These findings showed high fecal contamination of soil, food, and on hands and surfaces in households with young children and demonstrate the need for interventions reducing these exposure pathways for susceptible pediatric populations.
Authors’ addresses: Shirajum Monira, Fatema Zohura, Md Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Tahmina Parvin, Indrajeet Barman, Fatema Tuz Jubyda, Kazi Sumaita Nahar, Marzia Sultana, Wali Ullah, Shwapon Kumar Biswas, M. Tasdik Hasan, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Jahed Masud, Ismat Minhaj Uddin, Munirul Alam, and Fatema-Tuz Johura, icddr, b, formerly International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Elizabeth D. Thomas, Jamie Perin, and Christine Marie George, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com.