Hull NC , Schumaker BA , 2018. Comparisons of brucellosis between human and veterinary medicine. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 8: 1500846.
Franco MP , Mulder M , Gilman RH , Smits HL , 2007. Human brucellosis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 775–786.
Adetunji SA , Ramirez G , Foster MJ , Arenas-Gamboa AM , 2019. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13: e0007112.
Pappas G , Papadimitriou P , Akritidis N , Christou L , Tsianos EV , 2006. The new global map of human brucellosis. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 91–99.
Rubach MP , Halliday JE , Cleaveland S , Crump JA , 2013. Brucellosis in low-income and middle-income countries. Curr Opin Infect Dis 26: 404–412.
World Bank , 2019. Data for Jordan, Lower Middle Income. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/?locations=JO-XN. Accessed November 16, 2021.
Fleiss JL , Levin B , Paik MC , 2013. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Díaz R , Casanova A , Ariza J , Moriyón I , 2011. The Rose Bengal Test in human brucellosis: a neglected test for the diagnosis of a neglected disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e950.
Araj GF , 2010. Update on laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents 36 (Suppl 1): S12–S17.
Casao MA , Navarro E , Solera J , 2004. Evaluation of Brucellacapt for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. J Infect 49: 102–108.
Al-Majali AM , Shorman M , 2009. Childhood brucellosis in Jordan: revalence and analysis of risk factors. Int J Infect Dis 13: 196–200.
El-Diasty M , Ahmed H , Sayour A , El-Hofy F , Tahoun A , Shafik S , 2016. Seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle, molecular characterization in milk, and the analysis of associated risk factors with seroprevalence in humans, Egypt. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16: 758–764.
Department of Statistics (DoS) , 2019. Jordan Livestock Data Bank. Available at: http://dosweb.dos.gov.jo/agriculture/livestock/.
Akhvlediani T et al.2017. Epidemiological and clinical features of brucellosis in the country of Georgia. PLOS ONE 12: e0170376.
Havas KA , Ramishvili M , Navdarashvili A , Hill AE , Tsanava S , Imnadze P , Salman MD , 2013. Risk factors associated with human brucellosis in the country of Georgia: a case-control study. Epidemiol Infect 141: 45–53.
Lim J-S , Min K-D , Ryu S , Hwang S-S , Cho S-I , 2019. Spatial analysis to assess the relationship between human and bovine brucellosis in South Korea, 2005–2010. Sci Rep 9: 6657.
Liang P , Zhao Y , Zhao J , Pan D , Guo Z , 2020. The spatiotemporal distribution of human brucellosis in mainland China from 2007–2016. BMC Infect Dis 20: 249.
Obaidat MM , Malania L , Imnadze P , Roess AA , Bani Salman AE , Arner RJ , 2019. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii in Jordan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101: 40–44.
Cash-Goldwasser S et al.2018. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98: 598–606.
Aparicio ED , 2013. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus .Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 32: 53–60.
Dadar M , Fakhri Y , Shahali Y , Mousavi Khaneghah A , 2020. Contamination of milk and dairy products by Brucella species: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Res Int 128: 108775.
Jansen W , Linard C , Noll M , Nöckler K , Al Dahouk S , 2019. Brucella-positive raw milk cheese sold on the inner European market: a public health threat due to illegal import? Food Control 100: 130–137.
Obaidat MM , 2019. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter jejuni seropositivity in Jordan. Infect Dis 51: 140–146.
Leong KN , Chow TS , Wong PS , Hamzah SH , Ahmad N , Ch’ng CC , 2015. Outbreak of human brucellosis from consumption of raw goats’ milk in Penang, Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 539–541.
Sofian M , Aghakhani A , Velayati AA , Banifazl M , Eslamifar A , Ramezani A , 2008. Risk factors for human brucellosis in Iran: a case–control study. Int J Infect Dis 12: 157–161.
Mangtani P et al.2020. The prevalence and risk factors for human Brucella species infection in a cross-sectional survey of a rural population in Punjab, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 114: 255–263.
Al-Shamahy HA , Whitty CJ , Wright SG , 2000. Risk factors for human brucellosis in Yemen: a case control study. Epidemiol Infect 125: 309–313.
Abd El-Wahab EW , Hegazy YM , El-Tras WF , Mikheal A , Kabapy AF , Abdelfatah M , Bruce M , Eltholth MM , 2019. A multifaceted risk model of brucellosis at the human-animal interface in Egypt. Transbound Emerg Dis 66: 2383–2401.
Fouskis I , Sandalakis V , Christidou A , Tsatsaris A , Tzanakis N , Tselentis Y , Psaroulaki A , 2018. The epidemiology of Brucellosis in Greece, 2007–2012: a ‘One Health’ approach. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 112: 124–135.
Njeru J , Wareth G , Melzer F , Henning K , Pletz MW , Heller R , Neubauer H , 2016. Systematic review of brucellosis in Kenya: disease frequency in humans and animals and risk factors for human infection. BMC Public Health 16: 853.
Hilali M , El-Mayda E , Rischkowsky B , 2011. Characteristics and utilization of sheep and goat milk in the Middle East. Small Rumin Res 101: 92–101.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||32||32||4|
Brucellosis is a significant zoonotic disease and is endemic in several regions of the world. This study is aimed to determine the nationwide spatial distribution, seroprevalence, and risk factors for Brucella infections in Jordan. Serum samples of 938 individuals from 11 governorates were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and Brucellacapt® tests. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, animal ownership, and food consumption data. The seroprevalence of Brucella infection in Jordan’s population was 6.7% (95% CI, 5.2–8.5%). The multivariate model showed that location of residence, consuming raw milk/milk products, and owning small ruminants (goat and/or sheep) were significantly associated with seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. Individuals living in the northern Badia region had 8.82 greater odds (95% CI, 4.56–17.03) of seropositivity than individuals living in the Middle region of the country. Individuals who reported consumption of raw milk/milk products had 3.7 higher odds (95% CI, 2.01–6. 81) of seropositivity compared with individuals not consuming raw milk/milk products. In addition, individuals who own small ruminants (goat and/or sheep) had 2.14 higher odds (95% CI, 1.11–4.12) of seropositivity compared with individuals who do not own small ruminants. The identified geographic hotspots and small ruminants’ ownership, risk of raw milk products highlight the need for tailored training, education campaigns, and resources for controlling brucellosis in Jordan.
Financial support: This work was supported by the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Georgian Research and Development Foundation (GRDF) under research project # A-61053.
Authors’ addresses: Mohammad M. Obaidat, Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ar-Ramtha, Irbid, Jordan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Lile Malania, National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Ryan J. Arner, Ryan Arner Science Consulting, LLC, Freeport, PA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Amira A. Roess, Department of Global and Community Health, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, E-mail: email@example.com.