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Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Brucella Infections in Jordan

Mohammad M. ObaidatDepartment of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ar-Ramtha, Irbid, Jordan;

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Lile MalaniaNational Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia;

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Ryan J. ArnerRyan Arner Science Consulting, LLC, Freeport, Pennsylvania;

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Amira A. RoessDepartment of Global and Community Health, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia

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ABSTRACT.

Brucellosis is a significant zoonotic disease and is endemic in several regions of the world. This study is aimed to determine the nationwide spatial distribution, seroprevalence, and risk factors for Brucella infections in Jordan. Serum samples of 938 individuals from 11 governorates were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and Brucellacapt® tests. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, animal ownership, and food consumption data. The seroprevalence of Brucella infection in Jordan’s population was 6.7% (95% CI, 5.2–8.5%). The multivariate model showed that location of residence, consuming raw milk/milk products, and owning small ruminants (goat and/or sheep) were significantly associated with seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. Individuals living in the northern Badia region had 8.82 greater odds (95% CI, 4.56–17.03) of seropositivity than individuals living in the Middle region of the country. Individuals who reported consumption of raw milk/milk products had 3.7 higher odds (95% CI, 2.01–6. 81) of seropositivity compared with individuals not consuming raw milk/milk products. In addition, individuals who own small ruminants (goat and/or sheep) had 2.14 higher odds (95% CI, 1.11–4.12) of seropositivity compared with individuals who do not own small ruminants. The identified geographic hotspots and small ruminants’ ownership, risk of raw milk products highlight the need for tailored training, education campaigns, and resources for controlling brucellosis in Jordan.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Mohammad M. Obaidat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan. E-mail: mmobaidat@just.edu.jo

Financial support: This work was supported by the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Georgian Research and Development Foundation (GRDF) under research project # A-61053.

Authors’ addresses: Mohammad M. Obaidat, Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Ar-Ramtha, Irbid, Jordan, E-mail: mmobaidat@just.edu.jo. Lile Malania, National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, GA, E-mail: malanial@yahoo.com. Ryan J. Arner, Ryan Arner Science Consulting, LLC, Freeport, PA, E-mail: ryan.j.arner@gmail.com. Amira A. Roess, Department of Global and Community Health, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, E-mail: aroessgmu@gmail.com.

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