Kassebaum NJ et al., 2014. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood 123: 615–624.
Milman N , 2011. Anemia: still a major health problem in many parts of the world! Ann Hematol 90: 369–377.
Chaparro CM , Suchdev PS , 2019. Anemia epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology in low- and middle-income countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1450: 15–31.
Brooker S , Akhwale W , Pullan R , Estambale B , Clarke SE , Snow RW , Hotez PJ , 2007. Epidemiology of Plasmodium-helminth co-infection in Africa: populations at risk, potential impact on anemia, and prospects for combining control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 88–98.
Crawley J , 2004. Reducing the burden of anemia in infants and young children in malaria-endemic countries of Africa: from evidence to action. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 25–34.
Gutema B , Adissu W , Asress Y , Gedefaw L , 2014. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Filtu Town, Somali region, Southeast Ethiopia. BMC Hematol 14: 13.
Hotez PJ , Molyneux DH , 2008. Tropical anemia: one of Africa’s great killers and a rationale for linking malaria and neglected tropical disease control to achieve a common goal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e270.
Assefa S , Mossie A , Hamza L , 2014. Prevalence and severity of anemia among school children in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. BMC Hematol 14: 3.
Phillips RE , Pasvol G , 1992. Anaemia of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Baillieres Clin Haematol 5: 315–330.
Scott SP , Chen-Edinboro LP , Caulfield LE , Murray-Kolb LE , 2014. The impact of anemia on child mortality: an updated review. Nutrients 6: 5915–5932.
Galgamuwa LS , Iddawela D , Dharmaratne SD , Galgamuwa GLS , 2017. Nutritional status and correlated socio-economic factors among preschool and school children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka. BMC Public Health 17: 377.
Desai MR , Dhar R , Rosen DH , Kariuki SK , Shi YP , Kager PA , Ter Kuile FO , 2004. Daily iron supplementation is more efficacious than twice weekly iron supplementation for the treatment of childhood anemia in western Kenya. J Nutr 134: 1167–1174.
Desai MR et al., 2005. Factors associated with hemoglobin concentrations in pre-school children in western Kenya: cross-sectional studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 47–59.
Foote EM , Sullivan KM , Ruth LJ , Oremo J , Sadumah I , Williams TN , Suchdev PS , 2013. Determinants of anemia among preschool children in rural, western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 757–764.
Development KMoR , 2006. Kimira-Oluch Smallholder Farm Improvement Project.
Health KMo , 2015. National Malaria Control Programme.
World Health Organization , 2008. Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993–2005. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Galway L , Bell N , Sae AS , Hagopian A , Burnham G , Flaxman A , Weiss WM , Rajaratnam J , Takaro TK , 2012. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq. Int J Health Geogr 11: 12.
Cochran WG , 1977. Sampling Techniques. Chichester, New York: Wiley.
Weber GE et al., 2017. Sero-catalytic and antibody acquisition models to estimate differing malaria transmission intensities in western Kenya. Sci Rep 7: 16821.
Obonyo CO , Vulule J , Akhwale WS , Grobbee DE , 2007. In-hospital morbidity and mortality due to severe malarial anemia in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 23–28.
Newton CR , Warn PA , Winstanley PA , Peshu N , Snow RW , Pasvol G , Marsh K , 1997. Severe anaemia in children living in a malaria endemic area of Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 2: 165–178.
Zucker JR , Lackritz EM , Ruebush TK , Hightower AW , Adungosi JE , Were JB , Campbell CC , 1994. Anaemia, blood transfusion practices, HIV and mortality among women of reproductive age in western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88: 173–176.
Cornet M , Le Hesran JY , Fievet N , Cot M , Personne P , Gounoue R , Beyeme M , Deloron P , 1998. Prevalence of and risk factors for anemia in young children in southern Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 606–611.
Woldie H , Kebede Y , Tariku A , 2015. Factors associated with anemia among children aged 6–23 months attending growth monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag Hemra Zone, northeast Ethiopia. J Nutr Metab 2015: 928632.
Kibret S , Wilson GG , Tekie H , Petros B , 2014. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control. Malar J 13: 360.
Sogoba N , Doumbia S , Vounatsou P , Bagayoko MM , Dolo G , Traore SF , Maiga HM , Toure YT , Smith T , 2007. Malaria transmission dynamics in Niono, Mali: the effect of the irrigation systems. Acta Trop 101: 232–240.
Rumisha SF , Shayo EH , Mboera LEG , 2019. Spatio-temporal prevalence of malaria and anaemia in relation to agro-ecosystems in Mvomero district, Tanzania. Malar J 18: 228.
Nzobo BJ , Ngasala BE , Kihamia CM , 2015. Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection and use of different malaria control measures among primary school children in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Malar J 14: 491.
Sultana M , Sheikh N , Mahumud RA , Jahir T , Islam Z , Sarker AR , 2017. Prevalence and associated determinants of malaria parasites among Kenyan children. Trop Med Health 45: 25.
Gitonga CW , Edwards T , Karanja PN , Noor AM , Snow RW , Brooker SJ , 2012. Plasmodium infection, anaemia and mosquito net use among school children across different settings in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 17: 858–870.
Gebreweld A , Ali N , Ali R , Fisha T , 2019. Prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among children under five years of age attending at Guguftu Health Center, South Wollo, northeast Ethiopia. PLoS One 14: e0218961.
Monsen ER , 1988. Iron nutrition and absorption: dietary factors which impact iron bioavailability. J Am Diet Assoc 88: 786–790.
Kuziga F , Adoke Y , Wanyenze RK , 2017. Prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in Namutumba district, Uganda: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr 17: 25.
Ewusie JE , Ahiadeke C , Beyene J , Hamid JS , 2014. Prevalence of anemia among under-5 children in the Ghanaian population: estimates from the Ghana demographic and health survey. BMC Public Health 14: 626.
Armitage AE , Moretti D , 2019. The importance of iron status for young children in low- and middle-income countries: a narrative review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 12: 12.
Hurtado EK , Claussen AH , Scott KG , 1999. Early childhood anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am J Clin Nutr 69: 115–119.
Soliman AT , De Sanctis V , Kalra S , 2014. Anemia and growth. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 18: S1–S5.
Lozoff B , Corapci F , Burden MJ , Kaciroti N , Angulo-Barroso R , Sazawal S , Black M , 2007. Preschool-aged children with iron deficiency anemia show altered affect and behavior. J Nutr 137: 683–689.
Bouyou-Akotet MK , Dzeing-Ella A , Kendjo E , Etoughe D , Ngoungou EB , Planche T , Koko J , Kombila M , 2009. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the frequency of moderate to severe anaemia in children below 10 years of age in Gabon. Malar J 8: 166.
Premji Z , Hamisi Y , Shiff C , Minjas J , Lubega P , Makwaya C , 1995. Anaemia and Plasmodium falciparum infections among young children in an holoendemic area, Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Acta Trop 59: 55–64.
Baird JK , 1998. Age-dependent characteristics of protection v. susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92: 367–390.
Kurtis JD , Mtalib R , Onyango FK , Duffy PE , 2001. Human resistance to Plasmodium falciparum increases during puberty and is predicted by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels. Infect Immunol 69: 123–128.
Marsh K , Snow RW , 1997. Host-parasite interaction and morbidity in malaria endemic areas. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 352: 1385–1394.
Melku M , Takele WW , Anlay DZ , Ekubagewargies DT , Getaneh Z , Abebe M , Abebe Z , 2018. Male and undernourished children were at high risk of anemia in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ital J Pediatr 44: 79.
Zuffo CR , Osorio MM , Taconeli CA , Schmidt ST , da Silva BH , Almeida CC , 2016. Prevalence and risk factors of anemia in children. J Pediatr (Rio J) 92: 353–360.
Leenstra T , Kariuki SK , Kurtis JD , Oloo AJ , Kager PA , ter Kuile FO , 2004. Prevalence and severity of anemia and iron deficiency: cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya. Eur J Clin Nutr 58: 681–691.
Gebreyesus SH , Endris BS , Beyene GT , Farah AM , Elias F , Bekele HN , 2019. Anaemia among adolescent girls in three districts in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 19: 92.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||70||69||8|
Expanding agricultural irrigation efforts to enhance food security and socioeconomic development in sub-Saharan Africa may affect malaria transmission and socioeconomic variables that increase the risk of anemia in local communities. We compared the prevalence of anemia, Plasmodium falciparum infection, and indicators of socioeconomic status related to nutrition in communities in Homa Bay County, Kenya, where an agricultural irrigation scheme has been implemented, to that in nearby communities where there is no agricultural irrigation. Cross-sectional surveys conducted showed that anemia prevalence defined by WHO criteria (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) was less in communities in the irrigated areas than in the non-irrigated areas during the wet season (38.9% and 51.5%, χ2 = 4.29, P = 0.001) and the dry season (25.2% and 34.1%, χ2 = 7.33, P = 0.007). In contrast, Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence was greater during the wet season in irrigated areas than in non-irrigated areas (15.3% versus 7.8%, χ2 = 8.7, P = 0.003). There was, however, no difference during the dry season (infection prevalence, < 1.8%). Indicators of nutritional status pertinent to anemia pathogenesis such as weekly consumption of non–heme- and heme-containing foods and household income were greater in communities located within the irrigation scheme versus those outside the irrigation scheme (P < 0.0001). These data indicate that current agricultural irrigation schemes in malaria-endemic communities in this area have reduced the risk of anemia. Future studies should include diagnostic tests of iron deficiency, parasitic worm infections, and genetic hemoglobin disorders to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing community anemia burden.
Financial support: This study was financed by grants from the NIH (U19 AI129326, D43 TW001505, and R01 AI050243).
Authors’ addresses: Collince J. Omondi, David Odongo, and Antony Otieno, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Kevin O. Ochwedo, Shirley A. Onyango, Pauline Orondo, and Benyl M. Ondeto, International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research, Tom Mboya University College, Homa Bay, Kenya, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Henry Athiany, School of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ming-Chieh Lee, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA, E-mail: email@example.com. James W. Kazura, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Andrew K. Githeko, International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research, Tom Mboya University College, Homa Bay, Kenya, and Climate and Human Health Research Unit, Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya. Guiyun Yan, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA, E-mail: email@example.com.