• 1.

    Sasidharan S, Saudagar P, 2021. Leishmaniasis: where are we and where are we heading? Parasitol Res 120: 15411554.

  • 2.

    World Health Organization , 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/. Accessed April 12, 2021.

  • 3.

    World Health Organization, 2018. Leishmaniasis Page: Home/News/Fact Sheets. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/leishmaniasis.

  • 4.

    World Health Organization , 2010. Control of the leishmaniasis: report of a meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Leishmaniases, Geneva, March 22–26, 2010. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 949: 1186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Leelayoova S, Siripattanapipong S, Manomat J, Piyaraj P, Tan-ariya P, Bualert L, Mungthin M, 2017. Leishmaniasis in Thailand: a review of causative agents and situations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 534542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Tan BH, Lam MS, Wong SY, 1997. Three new cases of leishmaniasis: implications for the Singapore medical community. Ann Acad Med Singap 26: 717720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Abraham G, Leo YS, Singh M, Wong SY, 1997. A case report of visceral leishmaniasis in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singap 26: 713716.

  • 8.

    Viroj W, 2012. Leishmaniasis in Southeast Asia: The story of the emergence of an imported infection in a non-endemic are of the world. J Health Transl Med 15: 1114.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Burza S, Croft SL, Boelaert M, 2018. Leishmaniasis. Lancet 392: 951970.

  • 10.

    McGwire BS, Satoskar AR, 2014. Leishmaniasis: clinical syndromes and treatment. QJM 107: 714.

  • 11.

    Tien P, 2018. A Case Report of Leismaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Hue Central Hospital, in the 8th Asean Conference of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (ACTMP), 2018. Hanoi City, Vietnam: Vietnam Journal of Infectious Diseases.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Vu SN et al., 2021. Taxonomical insights and ecology of sandfly (Diptera, Psychodidae) species in six provinces of northern Vietnam. Parasite 28: 85.

  • 13.

    Driemeier M, de Oliveira PA, Druzian AF, Lopes Brum LF, Pontes ER, Dorval ME, Paniago AM, 2015. Late diagnosis: a factor associated with death from visceral leishmaniasis in elderly patients. Pathog Glob Health 109: 283289.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Das A, Karthick M, Dwivedi S, Banerjee I, Mahapatra T, Srikantiah S, Chaudhuri I, 2016. Epidemiologic correlates of mortality among symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis cases: findings from situation assessment in high endemic foci in India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0005150.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Lockwood DN, Moore EM, 2010. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. J Glob Infect Dis 2: 151158.

  • 16.

    Bern C et al., 2006. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis 43: 917924.

Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 740 740 123
Full Text Views 27 27 5
PDF Downloads 35 35 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Case Report: The First Case Report of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Cambodia

View More View Less
  • 1 Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia;
  • | 2 Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;
  • | 3 Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin;
  • | 4 University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa;
  • | 5 Columbia University, New York City, New York;
  • | 6 Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia;
  • | 7 Boston Children’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts;
  • | 8 Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, Washington
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected tropical disease that is commonly found in Asia, Africa, South America, and Mediterranean countries. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of the disease and is almost universally fatal if left untreated. The symptoms of VL overlap with many infectious diseases, malignancies, and other blood disorders. The most common findings include fever, cytopenias, and splenomegaly. Given the nonspecific symptoms, the diagnosis requires detailed laboratory investigations, including bone marrow examination, that can be challenging in low- and middle-income countries. Diagnostic limitations likely lead to the underdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis of VL. We describe, to our knowledge, the first case report of VL in Cambodia in a child presenting with fever, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis required a liver biopsy and multiple bone marrow biopsies to visualize intracellular Leishmania spp. Our case illustrates the diagnostic challenges and the importance of timely diagnosis. This case also highlights the need for heightened awareness of the diagnostic findings of VL and improved reporting of tropical diseases.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Benjamin Watkins, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, 2015 Uppergate Dr., Atlanta, GA 30322. E-mail: benjamin.watkins@emory.edu

Disclosure: This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the patient’s family provided written consent for the review of their medical records and publication of the results, per the Declaration of Helsinki.

Author contributions: S. L., K. S., B. C., K. T., and B. W. wrote the paper. J. J., V. L., and J. D. analyzed data. S. L., K. S., S. H., A. C., M. T., N. C., N. P., and P. F. collected the data. C. N., F. K., L. K., B. C., K. T., and B. W. supervised the research and edited the manuscript.

Authors’ addresses: Sam Lyvannak, Korb Sreynich, Sing Heng, Miliya Thyl, Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Ngeth Pises, and Prak Farrilend, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, E-mails: vannak_samly@yahoo.com, korbsreynich@gmail.com, singheng@angkorhospital.org, miliya_thyl@angkorhospital.org, pheaktra@angkorhospital.org, npises@angkorhospital.org, and prakfarrilend@gmail.com. Arjun Chandna, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, E-mail: arjun@tropmedres.ac. Jason Jarzembowski, Vasiliki Leventaki, and Bruce Camitta, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, E-mails: jjarzemb@mcw.edu, vleventaki@mcw.edu, and bcamitta@mcw.edu. Jonathan Davick, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, E-mail: jonathan-davick@uiowa.edu. Cindy Neunert, Columbia University, New York City, NY, E-mail: cn2401@cumc.columbia.edu. Frank Keller and Benjamin Watkins, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, GA, and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: frank.keller@choa.org and benjamin.watkins@emory.edu. Leslie S. Kean, Boston Children’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, E-mail: leslie_kean@dfci.harvard.edu. Katherine Tarlock, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, E-mail: katherine.tarlock@seattlechildrens.org.

Save