Black RH , 1956. The epidemiology of malaria in the southwest Pacific: changes associated with increasing European contact. Oceania 27: 136–142.
Buxton PA , 1926. The depopulation of the New Hebrides and other parts of Melanesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 19: 420–458.
Bruce-Chwatt LJ , Bruce-Chwatt JM , 1974. Malaria in Mauritius–as dead as the dodo. Bull N Y Acad Med 50: 1069–1080.
Bayliss-Smith TP , 1972. The Central Polynesian outlier populations since European contact. Carroll V , ed. Pacific Atoll Populations. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii, 286–343.
Hogbin HI , 1930. The problem of depopulation in Melanesia as applied to Ongtong Java (Solomon Islands). J Polyn Soc 39: 43–66.
Bayliss-Smith TP , 1972. Ontong Java: depopulation and repopulation. Carroll V , ed. Pacific Atoll Populations. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii, 415–484.
Hollins F , 1957. The atoll of Ontong Java, its depopulation and malaria control. J Trop Med Hyg 60: 231–237.
Cilento R , 1928. The Causes of the Depopulation of the Western Islands of the Territory of New Guinea. Department of Public Health. Canberra, Australia: Government Printer.
Bagshawe AG , 1935. Problems of health and disease of some small tropical islands. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 29: 211–226.
Mitjà O , Paru R , Selve B , Betuela I , Siba P , De Lazzari E , Bassat Q , 2013. Malaria epidemiology in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Malar J 12: 1–8.
Feachem RG , Chen I , Akbari O , Bertozzi-Villa A , Bhatt S , Binka F , Boni MF , Buckee C , Dieleman J , Dondorp A , 2019. Malaria eradication within a generation: ambitious, achievable, and necessary. Lancet Infect Dis 394: 1056–1112.
Hume JP , Martill D , Hing R , 2018. A terrestrial vertebrate palaeontological review of Aldabra Atoll, Aldabra Group, Seychelles. PLOS One 13: e0192675.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||52||50||4|
Islands without prior malaria have on occasion had severe epidemics after its initial introduction, the most infamous example being the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius in 1867. The historical record was examined to see if additional examples of malaria epidemics on Indo-Pacific islands, which were originally non-malarious had been documented. The late nineteenth century depopulation of Polynesian outliers such as Ontong Java has largely been blamed on malaria. Similar but less well-documented instances exist with both the Western Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Rennell in the Solomon Islands. Specific instances of malaria introduction to Grand Comoros and Aldabra Island in the Seychelles occurred by the early twentieth century. In some cases, the epidemics were caused by changes in anopheline vectors while in others new human populations carrying parasites were the important ecological change. It is, however, remarkable how rarely major malaria epidemics have occurred on Indo-Pacific islands.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Defence Force or the US Department of Defence.
Author’s addresses: G. Dennis Shanks, Australian Defence Force Malaria and Infectious Disease Institute, Enoggera, Australia, and School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, E-mail: email@example.com.