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Plasmid-Mediated Colistin Resistance 1 (mcr-1) was first reported in 2015 and is a great concern to human health. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of mcr-1 and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli (MCRPEC) and the association in infection status among various reservoirs connected to livestock. The study was conducted in 70 poultry and swine farms in a commune in Ha Nam province, northern Vietnam. Samples were collected from farmers, food animals, domestic animals, and farm environments (flies and wastewater) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for mcr-1 gene and species identification of PCR positive isolates. Among 379 obtained mcr-1 positives isolates, Escherichia coli was the major identified, varying from 50% (2/4) in dog feces to 100% (31/31) in humans feces isolates. The prevalence of MCRPEC was 14.4% (20/139), 49.7% (96/193), 31.3% (25/80), 36.7% (40/109), 26.9% (18/67), and 3.9% (2/51) in humans, chickens, pigs, flies, wastewater, and dogs, respectively. The study identified association between MCRPEC infection status in humans and flies (OR = 3.4), between flies and chickens (OR = 5.3), and between flies and pigs (OR = 9.0). Farmers’ age and farm livestock unit were also associated factors of MCRPEC infection status in humans (OR = 5.1 and 1.05, respectively). These findings bring new knowledge on antibiotic resistance in livestock setting and important suggestions on potential role of flies in the transmission of mcr-1 resistance gene.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Financial Support: This work was supported by the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 108.02-2017.320, GCRF OneHealth Poultry Hub (Royal Veterinary College, United Kingdom) under grant number BB/S001269/1, The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under grant numbers JP21fk0108093, JP21fk0108139, JP21fk0108133, JP21wm0325003, JP21wm0325022, JP21wm0225004, JP21wm0225008, and JP21gm1610003 and from IRD and LMI DRISA.
Authors’ addresses: Phuong Thi Lan Nguyen, Hung Thi Mai Tran, Thai Duy Pham, Tan Minh Luong, Thanh Ha Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong Nguyen, Tho Thi Thi Nguyen, Duong Nhu Tran, and Anh Duc Dang, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Hai Anh Tran, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mail: email@example.com. Ha Thi An Hoang, Vinh Medical University, Nghe An, Vietnam, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Chi Nguyen, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, Association of Public Health Laboratories, Silver Spring, MD, E-mail: email@example.com. Masato Suzuki, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Thanh Viet Le, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom, E-mail: email@example.com. Anne-Laure Bañuls, MIVEGEC (IRD-CNRS-Université de Montpellier), LMI DRISA, Centre IRD, Montpellier, France, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Marc Choisy, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, E-mail: email@example.com. Rogier H. Van Doorn, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Huy Hoang Tran, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, and Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mail: email@example.com.