• 1.

    Doggett SL, Dwyer DE, Peñas PF, Russell RC , 2012. Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options. Clin Microbiol Rev 25: 164192.

  • 2.

    Doggett SL, Geary MJ, Russell RC , 2004. The resurgence of bed bugs in Australia: with notes on their ecology and control. Environ Health 4: 3038.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Zorrilla-Vaca A, Silva-Medina MM, Escandón-Vargas K , 2015. Bedbugs, Cimex spp.: their current world resurgence and healthcare impact. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 5: 342352.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Leulmi H, Bitam I, Berenger JM, Lepidi H, Rolain JM, Almeras L, Raoult D, Parola P , 2015. Competence of Cimex lectularius bed bugs for the transmission of Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003789.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Suwannayod S, Chanbang Y, Buranapanichpan S , 2010. The life cycle and effectiveness of insecticides against the bed bugs of Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41: 548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Tawatsin A, Thavara U, Chompoosri J, Phusup Y, Jonjang N, Khumsawads C, Bhakdeenuan P, Sawanpanyalert P, Asavadachanukorn P, Mulla MS , 2011. Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J Med Entomol 48: 10231030.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Davies T, Field L, Williamson M , 2012. The re‐emergence of the bed bug as a nuisance pest: implications of resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides. Med Vet Entomol 26: 241254.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Elliott M, Janes N , 1978. Synthetic pyrethroids—a new class of insecticide. Chem Soc Rev 7: 473505.

  • 9.

    Dang K, Doggett SL, Singham GV, Lee C-Y , 2017. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Parasit Vectors 10: 131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Akhoundi M, Chebbah D, Sereno D, Marteau A, Jan J, Bruel C, Elissa N, Izri A , 2021. Widespread mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) populations in Paris. Int J Environ Res Public Health 18: 407.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Dang K, Toi CS, Lilly DG, Bu W, Doggett SL , 2015. Detection of knockdown resistance mutations in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in Australia. Pest Manag Sci 71: 914922.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ghavami MB, Ghahremani Z, Raeisi N, Taghiloo B, 2021. High levels of pyrethroid resistance and super-kdr mutations in the populations of tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in Iran. Parasites Vectors 14: 470.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Myamba J, Maxwell C, Asidi A, Curtis C , 2002. Pyrethroid resistance in tropical bedbugs, Cimex hemipterus, associated with use of treated bednets. Med Vet Entomol 16: 448451.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Bennett GW, Gondhalekar AD, Wang C, Buczkowski G, Gibb TJ , 2016. Using research and education to implement practical bed bug control programs in multifamily housing. Pest Manag Sci 72: 814.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    World Health Organization , 2016. Test Procedures for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Malaria Vector Mosquitoes. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dang K, Toi CS, Lilly DG, Lee CY, Naylor R, Tawatsin A, Thavara U, Bu W, Doggett SL , 2015. Identification of putative kdr mutations in the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Pest Manag Sci 71: 10151020.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Vazirianzadeh B, Dehghani R, Mehdinejad M, Sharififard M, Nasirabadi N , 2014. The first report of drug resistant bacteria isolated from the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, in Ahvaz, south-western Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 8: 53.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kassiri H, Dehghani R, Doostifar K, Rabbani D, Limoee M, Chaharbaghi N , 2020. Insecticide resistance in urban pests with emphasis on urban pests resistance in Iran: a review. Entomol Appl Sci Lett 7: 3254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Vatandoost H, Raeisi A, Saghafipour A, Nikpour F, Nejati J , 2019. Malaria situation in Iran: 2002–2017. Malar J 18: 200.

  • 20.

    Samiei A, Tavassoli M, Mardani K , 2020. Molecular analysis of pyrethroid resistance in Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) collected from different parts of Iran. Veterinary Research Forum: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran, 243.

  • 21.

    Lilly DG, Dang K, Webb CE, Doggett SL , 2018. Are Australian field‐collected strains of Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) resistant to deltamethrin and imidacloprid as revealed by topical assay? Austral Entomol 57: 7784.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Punchihewa R, de Silva WPP, Weeraratne TC, Karunaratne SP , 2019. Insecticide resistance mechanisms with novel ‘kdr’ type gene mutations in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus. Parasit Vectors 12: 301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Rinkevich FD, Du Y, Dong K , 2013. Diversity and convergence of sodium channel mutations involved in resistance to pyrethroids. Pestic Biochem Physiol 106: 93100.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

     Vander Pan A, Kuhn C, Schmolz E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Krücken J, 2020. Detection of target-site and metabolic resistance to pyrethroids in the bed bug Cimex lectularius in Berlin, Germany11Note: Supplementary data associated with this article. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 14: 274–283.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Yoon KS, Kwon DH, Strycharz JP, Hollingsworth CS, Lee SH, Clark JM , 2008. Biochemical and molecular analysis of deltamethrin resistance in the common bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J Med Entomol 45: 10921101.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

     Biduda S, Lin C, Saleh F, Konradsen F, Hansson H, Schiøler K L, Alifrangis M (2019). Temporal Pattern of Mutations in the Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Gene of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Sampled from Southern Taiwan. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101 (5): 973–975.

  • 27.

    Soderlund DM , 2012. Molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticide neurotoxicity: recent advances. Arch Toxicol 86: 165181.

Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 407 407 148
Full Text Views 7 7 6
PDF Downloads 12 12 11
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Identification of Knockdown Resistance Mutations in the Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in Iran

View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
  • | 2 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
  • | 3 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Department of Aerospace and Subaquatic Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
  • | 4 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Sciences in Infectious Diseases, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran;
  • | 5 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;
  • | 6 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

The worldwide resurgence of tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus beginning in the late 1990s has led to growing concern. Molecular data on pyrethroid resistance, which is essential for the control strategies, is unknown for C. hemipterus in Iran. The current study evaluated the deltamethrin resistance status of C. hemipterus by bioassay and molecular tests. Live bed bugs were collected from sleeping quarters (dormitories) in the city of Tehran and used for insecticide bioassay tests. For bioassay evaluation, mixed-sex pools of adult bugs were exposed to deltamethrin (0.025%)-treated paper. Polymerase chain reaction assay evaluated resistance-related mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) gene of studied populations. On the basis of the bioassay test within the 48-h exposure to deltamethrin, C. hemipterus were determined to be resistant. Knockdown time ratios (KR50) in the studied populations of C. hemipterus was 5.5-fold compared with those of the C. lectularius Teh strain. DNA sequencing of the VGSC gene revealed the presence of mutations at M918I and L1014 in C. hemipterus. According to the bioassay and molecular results of current study, C. hemipterus showed a high degree of pyrethroid resistance. The application of multiple approaches including physical, biological, and chemical tests should be regarded in future bed bug control strategies.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Rahmat Solgi, PhD, Medical Parasitology and Mycology, assistant Professor, Medical Microbiology Groups, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Ghafari Ave., Birjand, Iran Tel: +98 5632381517, Fax: +98 5632381517, E-mail: Rahmatsolgi@yahoo.comor Mohammad Darvishi, Associate Professor of Infectious Disease, School of Aerospace and Subaquatic Medicine Beasat Hospital AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: 021 8802 8350, E-mail: darvishi1349@gmail.com

Disclosure: All procedures in this investigation were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (IR.AJAUMS.REC.1400.277).

Authors’ addresses: Mehdi Tiotour, Minoo Shaddel, Mohammad Aminianfar, and Mohammad Darvishi, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Department of Aerospace and Subaquatic Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, E-mails: i.parasite@yahoo.com, navidinparast@yahoo.com, microbiology3961@yahoo.com, and darvishi1349@gmail.com. Hadi Mirahmadi, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, and Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, E-mail: hmirahmadi59@gmail.com. Gholamreza Barzegar, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, E-mail: rezabarzegar51@gmail.com. Rahmat Solgi, Infectious Disease Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran, E-mail: rahmatsolgi@yahoo.com.

Save