Clinico-Etiological Profile and Predictors of Mortality of Nontraumatic Coma in Children of Upper Egypt: A Prospective Observational Study

Khaled A. Abdel Baseer Department of Pediatrics, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt;

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Ismail Lotfy Mohamad Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt;

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Heba M. Qubaisy Department of Pediatrics, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt;

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Magda F. Gabri Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt;

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Mohamed A. A. Abdel Naser Department of Anesthesia and ICU, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

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Yaser F. Abdel Raheem Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt;

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ABSTRACT.

Nontraumatic coma (NTC) is a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This prospective observational study aimed to determine the clinico-etiological profile of NTC in children and delineate clinical signs predicting mortality in Upper Egypt from June 2019 to May 2020. All children from 1 month of age to 16 years who were admitted with NTC were included in the study. All patients received full histories and physical examinations, including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Routine laboratory investigations including complete blood count, electrolytes, blood sugar, serum creatinine, and liver function tests were performed for all patients. Specific investigations such as metabolic studies, lumbar punctures, brain computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging were done when indicated. The precise etiology was determined and clinical presentations for survivors and nonsurvivors were compared. Among the 137 cases of NTC identified, central nervous system (CNS) infections were the most common cause leading to 38 cases, followed by toxic causes in 37 cases, status epilepticus in 22 cases, and metabolic causes in 21 cases. Hypothermia, hypotension, abnormal respiratory patterns, muscle hypotonia, absent corneal reflex, presence of shock, and need for mechanical ventilation were significantly correlating with mortality. The estimated mortality rate was 18.2% and all cases with GCS < 5 died. Toxic causes were the most commonly identified etiology in patients who died. In conclusion, the authors identified several etiologies for NTC in Upper Egypt and their corresponding clinical signs at presentation. This information can be used to improve the clinical care provided to children with NTC.

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Author Notes

Address correspondence to Khaled A. Abdel Baseer, Department of Pediatrics, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Almaabar street, 83523, Egypt. E-mail: khaledabdalla20@yahoo.com

Authors’ addresses: Khaled A. Abdel Baseer, Department of Pediatrics, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt, E-mail: khaledabdalla20@yahoo.com. Ismail Lotfy Mohamad, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt, E-mail: ismail231@aun.edu.eg. Heba M. Qubaisy, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt, E-mail: hebaqubasy@gmail.com. Magda F. Gabri, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt, E-mail: magda.farghly@med.aswu.edu.eg. Mohamed A. A. Abdel Naser, Department of Anesthesia and ICU, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt, E-mail: monbasser@yahoo.com. Yaser F. Abdel Raheem, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt, E-mail: yasser.rezk@med.aun.edu.eg.

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