• 1.

    Rahmati Balaghaleh M, Zarean M, Afzal Aghaee M, Shamsian SA, Mirahmadi H, Arya A , 2018. Comparison of PfHRP-2/pLDH RDTs with light microscopy in a low prevalence setting in southeastern Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan. Due to Implementation of Malaria Elimination Program Int J Infect 5: e12286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    World Health Organization , 2020. World Malaria Report 2020, 20 Years of Global Progress & Challenges. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

  • 3.

    Han E-T, Watanabe R, Sattabongkot J, Khuntirat B, Sirichaisinthop J, Iriko H, Jin L, Takeo S, Tsuboi T , 2007. Detection of four Plasmodium species by genus-and species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification for clinical diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 45: 25212528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Cook J, Aydin-Schmidt B, González IJ, Bell D, Edlund E, Nassor MH, Msellem M, Ali A, Abass AK, Mårtensson A , 2015. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for point-of-care detection of asymptomatic low-density malaria parasite carriers in Zanzibar. Malar J 14: 43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Mirahmadi H, Shahrakipour A, Mehravaran A, Khorashad AS, Rahmati-Balaghaleh M, Zarean M , 2018. Evaluation of malaria multiplex/nested PCR performance at low parasite densities and mixed infection in Iran: a country close to malaria elimination. Infect Genet Evol 65: 283287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Maghsoodloorad S, Hosseinzadeh N, Haghighi A, Solgi R, Yusuf MA, Hatam G , 2019. Amino acid mutation in Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. J Vector Borne Dis 56: 170173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Kimura M, Kaneko O, Liu Q, Zhou M, Kawamoto F, Wataya Y, Otani S, Yamaguchi Y, Tanabe K , 1997. Identification of the four species of human malaria parasites by nested PCR that targets variant sequences in the small subunit rRNA gene. Parasitol Int 46: 9195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Perandin F, Manca N, Calderaro A, Piccolo G, Galati L, Ricci L, Medici M, Arcangeletti M, Snounou G, Dettori G , 2004. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium ovale for routine clinical diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 42: 12141219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Notomi T, Okayama H, Masubuchi H, Yonekawa T, Watanabe K, Amino N, Hase T , 2000. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 28: e63e63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Taghdiri A, Nejad Almani PG, Sharifi I, Mohammadi MA, Salari S , 2019. Detection of malaria with light microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) methods in peripheral blood expansions and investigation of the genetic diversity of Plasmodium species by 18S rRNA gene in southeast of Iran. Microb Pathogen 137: 103782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Pöschl B, Waneesorn J, Thekisoe O, Chutipongvivate S, Panagiotis K , 2010. Comparative diagnosis of malaria infections by microscopy, nested PCR, and LAMP in northern Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 5660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Perera RS, Ding XC, Tully F, Oliver J, Bright N, Bell D, Chiodini PL, Gonzalez IJ, Polley SD , 2017. Development and clinical performance of high throughput loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of malaria. PLoS One 12: e0171126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hopkins H, González IJ, Polley SD, Angutoko P, Ategeka J, Asiimwe C, Agaba B, Kyabayinze DJ, Sutherland CJ, Perkins MD , 2013. Highly sensitive detection of malaria parasitemia in a malaria-endemic setting: performance of a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification kit in a remote clinic in Uganda. J Infect Dis 208: 645652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Tegegne B, Getie S, Lemma W, Mohon AN, Pillai DR , 2017. Performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the diagnosis of malaria among malaria suspected pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia. Malar J 16: 34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kuamsab N, Putaporntip C, Pattanawong U, Jongwutiwes S , 2012. Simultaneous detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in clinical isolates by multiplex-nested RT-PCR. Malar J 11: 190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    WHO Global Malaria Programme , 2013. World Malaria Report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

  • 17.

    Sema M, Alemu A, Bayih AG, Getie S, Getnet G, Guelig D, Burton R, LaBarre P, Pillai DR , 2015. Evaluation of non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (NINA-LAMP) for the diagnosis of malaria in northwest Ethiopia. Malar J 14: 44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Patel JC, Lucchi NW, Srivastava P, Lin JT, Sug-Aram R, Aruncharus S, Bharti PK, Shukla MM, Congpuong K, Satimai W , 2014. Field evaluation of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, RealAmp, for the diagnosis of malaria in Thailand and India. J Infect Dis 210: 11801187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Moody A , 2002. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 6678.

  • 20.

    Tao Z-Y, Zhou H-Y, Xia H, Xu S, Zhu H-W, Culleton RL, Han E-T, Lu F, Fang Q, Gu Y-P , 2011. Adaptation of a visualized loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique for field detection of Plasmodium vivax infection. Parasit Vectors 4: 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Sattabongkot J, Tsuboi T, Han ET, Bantuchai S, Buates S , 2014. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of malaria infections in an area of endemicity in Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 52: 14711477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Paris DH, Imwong M, Faiz AM, Hasan M, Yunus EB, Silamut K, Lee SJ, Day NP, Dondorp AM , 2007. Loop-mediated isothermal PCR (LAMP) for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 972976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Ocker R, Prompunjai Y, Chutipongvivate S, Karanis P , 2016. Malaria diagnosis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in Thailand. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 58: 27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Sirichaisinthop J, Buates S, Watanabe R, Han E-T, Suktawonjaroenpon W, Krasaesub S, Takeo S, Tsuboi T, Sattabongkot J , 2011. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for malaria diagnosis in a field setting. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 594596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Al-Soud WA, Jönsson LJ, Rådström P , 2000. Identification and characterization of immunoglobulin G in blood as a major inhibitor of diagnostic PCR. J Clin Microbiol 38: 345350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Ebrahimzadeh A, Fouladi B, Fazaeli A , 2007. High rate of detection of mixed infections of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in south-east of Iran, using nested PCR. Parasitol Int 56: 6164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Andrews L, Andersen RF, Webster D, Dunachie S, Walther RM, Bejon P, Hunt-Cooke A, Bergson G, Sanderson F, Hill AV , 2005. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis and its use in malaria vaccine clinical trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 191198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mekonnen SK, Aseffa A, Medhin G, Berhe N, Velavan TP , 2014. Re-evaluation of microscopy confirmed Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria by nested PCR detection in southern Ethiopia. Malar J 13: 48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Coleman RE, Sattabongkot J, Promstaporm S, Maneechai N, Tippayachai B, Kengluecha A, Rachapaew N, Zollner G, Miller RS, Vaughan JA , 2006. Comparison of PCR and microscopy for the detection of asymptomatic malaria in a Plasmodium falciparum/vivax endemic area in Thailand. Malar J 5: 737748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Jamjoom MB , 2006. Detection of malaria in Saudi Arabia by real-time PCR. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36.

Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1411 1411 148
Full Text Views 31 31 3
PDF Downloads 35 35 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Evaluation of Multiplex/Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Malaria Diagnosis in Southeastern Iran

View More View Less
  • 1 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Sciences in Infectious Diseases, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran;
  • | 2 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran;
  • | 3 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran;
  • | 4 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran;
  • | 5 Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran;
  • | 6 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

Malaria is one of the most serious health problems in many countries, including Iran. Accurate diagnosis is important regardless of the elimination status of a country. A cross-sectional study was performed on 105 people who were suspected to be positive for malaria infection in Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran. Blood smears (thin and thick films) were stained with 10% Giemsa. DNA was extracted from the prepared thin and thick films for molecular methods. Multiplex/nested polymerase chain reaction (mn-PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and light microscopy (LM) were compared with nested PCR (nPCR) as a gold standard. Of 105 subjects, 52 (49.5%), 58 (55.2%), 58 (55.2%), and 63 (60%) were positive for malaria by LM, nPCR, mn-PCR, and LAMP, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa were 92.1%, 100%, and 0.9 for LAMP and 100%, 100%, and 1 for mn-PCR, respectively. Eight cases of coinfection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) that were not detected by LM method were diagnosed by mn-PCR and LAMP. In the present study, the high sensitivity and specificity of LAMP and mn-PCR indicate that these two tests are good alternatives to nPCR for malaria diagnosis

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 248 KB)

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Rahmat Solgi, Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran, E-mail: rahmatsolgi@yahoo.comor Mehdi Zarean, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, E-mail: zareanm@mums.ac.ir.

Financial support: This study supported by the grant no. 7700, provided from Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Disclosure: All procedures in this investigation were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (IR.Zaums.fm.REC.1395.17). Oral consent was obtained from the participants before sampling.

Authors’ addresses: Hadi Mirahmadi, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran, E-mail: trajaiii81@yahoo.com. Azam Shahrakipour, Ahmad Mehravaran, Mansour Rahmati-Balaghaleh, Soodabeh Etemadi, and Mehdi Shahraki, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran, E-mails: namamianfarshid@yahoo.com, s.jstbiology@yahoo.com, rahnamamahsa783@yahoo.com, sshafaii@yahoo.com, asgariq@yahoo.com. Mehdi Zarean, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Parasitology and mycology, Mashhad, Iran, E-mail: mo.di75@yahoo.com. Rahmat Solgi, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Medical Microbiology, Birjand, Iran, E-mail: rahmatsolgi@yahoo.com.

Save