• 1.

    World Health Organization , 2020. World Malaria Report 2020, 20 Years of Global Progress & Challenges. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015791. Accessed March 20, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    World Health Organization , 2021. Countries and Territories Certified Malaria-free by WHO. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/teams/global-malaria-programme/elimination/countries-and-territories-certified-malaria-free-by-who. Accessed March 20, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    World Health Organization , 2011. Bhutan Malaria Control Programme Review: A Report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/204831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Wangdi K, Penjor K, Tobgyal, Lawpoolsri S, Price RN, Gething PW, Gray DJ, Da Silva Fonseca E, Clements ACA , 2021. Space–time clustering characteristics of malaria in Bhutan at the end stages of elimination. Int J Environ Res Public Health 18: 5553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Vector-borne Diseases Control Programme, Department of Public Health Ministry of Health Royal Government of Bhutan , 2020. Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria and Prevention of Re-introduction in Bhutan 2020–2025. Available at: https://apmen.org/sites/default/files/all_resources/Strategic%20Plan%20for%20Elimination%20%26%20Prevention%20of%20Re-Introduction_Bhutan%20%282020-2025%29.pdf.

  • 6.

    Ministry of Health, Royal Government of Bhutan , 2020. Annual Health Bulletin 2020. Available at: http://www.moh.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/ict-files/2017/06/health-bulletin-Website_Final.pdf. Accessed October 16, 2020.

  • 7.

    National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme , 2016. National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016–2030). Available at: https://nvbdcp.gov.in/WriteReadData/l892s/National-framework-for-malaria-elimination-in-India-2016%E2%80%932030.pdf. Accessed October 16, 2020.

  • 8.

    National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme , 2020. Malaria Situation. Available at: https://nvbdcp.gov.in/WriteReadData/l892s/70838173921597401184.pdf. Accessed October 3, 2020.

  • 9.

    Sarma DK, Mohapatra PK, Bhattacharyya DR, Chellappan S, Karuppusamy B, Barman K, Senthil Kumar N, Dash AP, Prakash A, Balabaskaran Nina P , 2019. Malaria in north-east India: importance and implications in the era of elimination. Microorganisms 7: 673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Dev V, Sharma VP, Barman K , 2015. Mosquito-borne diseases in Assam, north-east India: current status and key challenges. WHO South-East Asia J Public Health 4: 2029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Saikia NJ , 2017. Malaria: an epidemic in Assam. Asian J Sci Technol 8: 50795083.

  • 12.

    Wangchuk S, Gyeltshen S, Dorji K, Wangdi T, Dukpa T, Namgay R, Dorjee S, Tobgay T, Chaijaroenkul W, Na-Bangchang K , 2019. Malaria elimination in Bhutan: asymptomatic malaria cases in the Bhutanese population living in malaria-risk areas and in migrant workers from India. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 61: e52.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    World Health Organization, South-East Asia , 2019. Meeting on Cross Border Collaboration on Malaria Elimination Along the India-Bhutan border. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331933 Accessed October 16, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Quantum GIS Development Team , 2021. Quantum GIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. Available at: https://qgis.org/en/site/.

  • 15.

    Bioquest AAT, Inc , 2019. Quest Graph™ Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) Test Calculator. Available at: https://www.aatbio.com/tools/kolmogorov-smirnov-k-s-test-calculator. Accessed March 24, 2021.

  • 16.

    Cohen AA, Dhingra N, Jotkar RM, Rodriguez PS, Sharma VP, Jha P , 2010. The Summary Index of Malaria Surveillance (SIMS): a stable index of malaria within India. Popul Health Metr 8: 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Bi Y, Hu W, Liu H, Xiao Y, Guo Y, Chen S, Zhao L, Tong S , 2012. Can slide positivity rates predict malaria transmission? Malar J 11: 117.

  • 18.

    Dev V, Sharma VP , 2013. The Dominant Mosquito Vectors of Human Malaria in India, Anopheles Mosquitoes - New Insights into Malaria Vectors. Sylvie Manguin IntechOpen 2013. Available at: https://www.intechopen.com/books/anopheles-mosquitoes-new-insights-into-malaria-vectors/the-dominant-mosquito-vectors-of-human-malaria-in-india.

  • 19.

    Sharma VP , 2012. Continuing challenge of malaria in India. Curr Sci 102: 678682.

  • 20.

    Dev V , 2020. Vector Biology and Control: an Update for Malaria Elimination Initiative in India. New Delhi, India: The National Academy of Sciences.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Raghavendra K, Velamuri PS, Verma V, Elamathi N, Barik TK, Bhatt RM, Dash AP, 2017. Temporo-spatial distribution of insecticide-resistance in Indian malaria vectors in the last quarter-century: need for regular resistance monitoring and management. J Vector Borne Dis 54: 111130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Government of Arunachal Pradesh , 1996. Arunachal Pradesh District Gazetteers. East Kameng, West Kameng. Available at: http://www.arunachalpradesh.gov.in/east-kameng-west-kameng-tawang-districts. Accessed October 16, 2020.

  • 23.

    Dhiman S, Yadav K, Rabha B, Goswami D, Hazarika S, Tyagi V, 2016. Evaluation of insecticides susceptibility and malaria vector potential of anopheles annularis s.l. and anopheles vagus in Assam, India. PLoS One 11: e0151786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Prakash A, Mohapatra PK, Srivastava VK , 1996. Vector incrimination in Tamulpur primary health centre, district Nalbari, lower Assam during malaria outbreak 1995. Indian J Med Res 103: 146149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Nath DC, Mwchahary DD , 2012. Malaria prevalence in forest and non-forest areas of Kokrajhar district of Assam. Public Health 2012: 142037.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Prakash A, Sarma DK, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Bhattacharjee K, Das K, Mahanta J, 2010. Spatial distribution and r-DNA second internal transcribed spacer characterization of Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae) complex species in north-east India. Acta Trop 114: 4954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Mittal PK, Wijeyaratne P, Pandey S , 2004. Status of insecticide resistance of malaria, Kala-azar and Japanese encephalitis vectors in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN). Environ Health Proj Act Rep 129: 4448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Subbarao SK, Nanda N, Rahi M, Raghavendra K , 2019. Biology and bionomics of malaria vectors in India: existing information and what more needs to be known for strategizing elimination of malaria. Malar J 18: 396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Tananchai C, Tisgratog R, Juntarajumnong W, Grieco JP, Manguin S, Prabaripai A, Chareonviriyaphap T , 2012. Species diversity and biting activity of Anopheles dirus and Anopheles baimaii (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria prone area of western Thailand. Parasit Vectors 5: 211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Yadav RS, Raghavendra K, Velamuri PS, Verma V, Uragayala S & Dev V Vector Biology and Control – An Update for Malaria Elimination Initiative in India. Allahabad, India: National Academy of Sciences, 129148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Census of India , 2011. District Census Hand Book. Available at: https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB.html. Accessed October 16, 2020.

  • 32.

    Martens P, Hall L, 2000. Malaria on the move: human population movement and malaria transmission. Emerg Infect Dis 6: 103109.

  • 33.

    Lucas AM , 2010. Malaria eradication and educational attainment: evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Am Econ J Appl Econ 2: 4671.

  • 34.

    Yadav K, Dhiman S, Rabha B, Saikia P, Veer V , 2014. Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India. Infect Dis Poverty 3: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Mutheneni SR, Upadhyayula SM, Kadiri MR, Nishing K , 2014. Malaria prevalence in Arunachal Pradesh—a northeastern state of India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 10881093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Rahi M, Sharma A , 2020. For malaria elimination India needs a platform for data integration. BMJ Glob Health 5: e004198.

  • 37.

    Rahi M, Chaturvedi R, Das P, Sharma A , 2021. India can consider integration of three eliminable disease control programmes on malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS Pathog 17: e1009492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Rahi M, Ahmad SS, Sharma A , 2021. Coverage enhancement and community empowerment via commercial availability of the long-lasting nets for malaria in India. Public Health Pract 2: 100133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia , 2018. WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia – Report of the Seventy-first Session. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/310929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia , 2017. Regional Action Plan 2017–2030. Towards 0. Malaria-Free South-East Asia Region. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 586 586 56
Full Text Views 36 36 6
PDF Downloads 41 41 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Malaria Epidemiology Along the Indian Districts Bordering Bhutan and Implications for Malaria Elimination in the Region

View More View Less
  • 1 National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India;
  • | 2 National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme, Guwahati, India;
  • | 3 National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme, Delhi, India;
  • | 4 Molecular Medicine Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

It is important for malaria-endemic countries to address malaria control across international borders, and in particular to prioritize appropriate rapid diagnosis, treatment and surveillance. Bhutan and India aim to achieve malaria elimination by 2023 and 2030 respectively. Malaria elimination along the Indo–Bhutan border is of common concern. We delineated malaria epidemiology along the border to provide a blueprint for focusing malaria control efforts in key foci within this region. Epidemiological data from 2015 to 2019 were analyzed, as the most drastic reductions in malaria burden across most parts of India were witnessed in this time frame. Several areas of concern include low surveillance in most border districts, favorable climatic conditions for perennial malaria transmission, and movement of potential parasite carriers because of the porous borders. India and Bhutan need to control the importation/exportation of malaria cases. We highlight the foci of concern for which implementing tailor-made malaria control strategies may benefit both countries.

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 1199 KB)

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Amit Sharma, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector 8, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110 077, India. E-mail: directornimr@gmail.com

Disclaimer: The views expressed in the submitted article are our own and not an official position of the institution or funder.

Authors’ addresses: Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Poonam Saroha, Rekha Saxena, and Amit Sharma, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Dwarka, New Delhi, India, E-mails: nimr.sanjeev@gmail.com, sarohapoonam06@gmail.com, rekhas2011@rediffmail.com, and directornimr@gmail.com. Kuldeep Singh, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Field Unit Guwahati, Assam, India, E-mail: kuldeepgju17@gmail.com. Keshab Barman, National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme, Guwahati, Assam, India, E-mail: sphc.nvbdcp.assam@gmail.com. Avdhesh Kumar, National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme, Delhi, India, E-mail: kavdheshnvbdcp@gmail.com.

Save