Konchom S, Singhasivanon P, Kaewkungwal J, Chuprapawan S, Thimasarn K, Kidson C, Yimsamran S, Rojanawatsirivet C, 2005. Chronicle of malaria epidemics in Thailand, 1980–2000. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36: 64–67.
Wongsrichanalai C, Sirichaisinthop J, Karwacki JJ, Congpuong K, Miller RS, Pang L, Thimasarn K, 2001. Drug resistant malaria on the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodian borders. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32: 41–49.
Durham J, Battle K, Rickart K, Shanks GD, 2014. Geographical origin of post-landmine injury malaria infections. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 8: 417–421.
Wongsrichanalai C, Pickard AL, Wernsdorfer WH, Meshnick SR, 2002. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria. Lancet Infect Dis 2: 209–218.
Nyunt MH, Wang B, Aye KM, Aye KH, Han J-H, Lee S-K, Han KT, Htut Y, Han E-T, 2017. Molecular surveillance of artemisinin resistance falciparum malaria among migrant goldmine workers in Myanmar. Malar J 16: 1–8.
Castellanos A, Chaparro-Narváez P, Morales-Plaza CD, Alzate A, Padilla J, Arévalo M, Herrera S, 2016. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 111: 59–66.
Douine M, Musset L, Corlin F, Pelleau S, Pasquier J, Mutricy L, Adenis A, Djossou F, Brousse P, Perotti F, 2016. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in illegal gold miners in French Guiana in 2015: a hidden but critical malaria reservoir. Malar J 15: 1–8.
Feachem RG, Chen I, Akbari O, Bertozzi-Villa A, Bhatt S, Binka F, Boni MF, Buckee C, Dieleman J, Dondorp A, 2019. Malaria eradication within a generation: ambitious, achievable, and necessary. Lancet 394: 1056–1112.
Mosnier E, Roux E, Cropet C, Lazrek Y, Moriceau O, Gaillet M, Mathieu L, Nacher M, Demar M, Odonne G, 2020. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Amazonian Border Context (French Guiana–Brazil): associated factors and spatial distribution. Am J Trop Med Hyg 102: 130–141.
Sanchez JF, Carnero AM, Rivera E, Rosales LA, Baldeviano GC, Asencios JL, Edgel KA, Vinetz JM, Lescano AG, 2017. Unstable malaria transmission in the southern Peruvian Amazon and its association with gold mining, Madre de Dios, 2001–2012. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 304–311.
Grillet ME, Moreno JE, Hernández-Villena JV, Vincenti-González MF, Noya O, Tami A, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Llewellyn M, Lowe R, Escalante AA, 2021. Malaria in southern Venezuela: the hottest hotspot in Latin America. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 15: e0008211.
Arisco NJ, Peterka C, Castro MC, 2021. Cross-border malaria in northern Brazil. Malar J 20: 1–13.
Pacheco MA, Forero-Peña DA, Schneider KA, Chavero M, Gamardo A, Figuera L, Kadakia ER, Grillet ME, Oliveira-Ferreira J, Escalante AA, 2020. Malaria in Venezuela: changes in the complexity of infection reflects the increment in transmission intensity. Malar J 19: 1–15.
Mathieu LC, Cox H, Early AM, Mok S, Lazrek Y, Paquet J-C, Ade M-P, Lucchi NW, Grant Q, Udhayakumar V, 2020. Local emergence in Amazonia of Plasmodium falciparum k13 C580Y mutants associated with in vitro artemisinin resistance. eLife 9: e51015.
Louzada J, de Almeida NCV, de Araujo JLP, Silva J, Carvalho TM, Escalante AA, Oliveira-Ferreira J, 2020. The impact of imported malaria by gold miners in Roraima: characterizing the spatial dynamics of autochthonous and imported malaria in an urban region of Boa Vista. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 115: e200043.
Murta FLG, Marques LLG, Santos APC, Batista TSB, Mendes MO, Silva ED, da Silva Neto AV, Fabiano MP, Rodovalho SR, Monteiro WM, 2021. Perceptions about malaria among Brazilian gold miners in an Amazonian border area: perspectives for malaria elimination strategies. Malar J 20: 286.
Douine M, Sanna A, Galindo M, Musset L, de Santi VP, Marchesini P, Magalhaes ED, Suarez-Mutis M, Hiwat H, Nacher M, 2018. Malakit: an innovative pilot project to self-diagnose and self-treat malaria among illegal gold miners in the Guiana shield. Malar J 17: 1–8.
Li Z, Yang Y, Xiao N, Zhou S, Lin K, Wang D, Zhang Q, Jiang W, Li M, Feng X, 2015. Malaria imported from Ghana by returning gold miners, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 864.
Matsee W, Chatapat L, Chotivanich K, Piyaphanee W, 2018. Case report: a cluster of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases among Thai workers in Gembu, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99: 623–626.
Shanks G, Edstein M, Kereu R, Spicer P, Rieckmann K, 1993. Postexposure administration of halofantrine for the prevention of malaria. Clin Infect Dis 17: 628–631.
Mitjà O, Paru R, Selve B, Betuela I, Siba P, De Lazzari E, Bassat Q, 2013. Malaria epidemiology in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea. Malar J 12: 1–8.
Haston JC, Hwang J, Tan KR, 2019. Guidance for using tafenoquine for prevention and antirelapse therapy for malaria—United States, 2019. MMWR 68: 1062.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||113||53||12|
Tropical alluvial gold and gem miners are often an especially at-risk population for malaria infection. Geographical areas of mining-associated malaria epidemics in the recent past include Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar); the Amazon basin (Brazil, French Guyana, Suriname, Columbia, and Peru); and tropical Africa. Mobile populations of young adult men engaged in the hard labor of mining may experience severe malaria especially if they lack preexisting immunity and are irregularly consuming antimalarial drugs. Particular problems occur because much of this informal mining activity is illegal and done in isolated areas without access to health services and with evidence of emerging antimalarial drug resistance. Concentrating vulnerable populations in an ecologically disturbed landscape is often conducive to epidemics, which can then spread as these highly mobile workers return to their homes. Mining-associated malaria endangers malaria elimination efforts and miners need to be addressed as a group of particular concern.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Defence Force or the US Department of Defence.
Authors’ addresses: G. Dennis Shanks, Australian Defence Force Infectious Disease and Malaria Institute, Enoggera, Australia, and University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Brisbane, Australia, E-mail: email@example.com. Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, Independent Consultant, Boston, MA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.