Buonfrate D, Bisanzio D, Giorli G, Odermatt P, Fürst T, Greenaway C, French M, Reithinger R, Gobbi F, Montresor A, Bisoffi Z, 2020. The global prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Pathogens 9: 468.
Montresor A et al., 2020. The global progress of soil-transmitted helminthiases control in 2020 and World Health Organization targets for 2030. PLOS Negl Trop 14: e0008505.
Yunus MH, Arifin N, Balachandra D, Anuar NS, Noordin R, 2019. Lateral flow dipstick test for serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101: 432–435.
Noordin R, Anuar NS, Juri NM, Wongphutorn P, Sirowan Ruantip S, Kulthida Y, Kopolrat KY, Worasith C, Sithithaworn J, Sithithaworn P, 2021. Evaluation of a rapid IgG4 lateral flow dipstick test to detect Strongyloides stercoralis infection in northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 105: 688–691.
Noordin R, Yunus MH, Robinson K, Won KY, Babu S, Fischer PU, Hisam S, Mahmud R, 2018. Laboratory evaluation of a rapid IgG4 antibody test (BLF Rapid™) for bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99: 1587–1590.
Noordin R, Mohd Zain SN, Yunus MH, Sahimin N, 2017. Seroprevalence of lymphatic filariasis among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 111: 370–372.
Lammie PJ, Weil G, Noordin R, Kaliraj P, Steel C, Goodman D, Lakshmikanthan VB, Ottesen E, 2004. Recombinant antigen-based antibody assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis-a multicenter trial. Filaria J 3: 9.
Supali T, Djuardi Y, Bradley M, Noordin R, Rückert P, Fischer PU, 2013. Impact of six rounds of mass drug administration on brugian filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in eastern Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2586.
Saidin S, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Razak KA, Huat LB, Othman N, Noordin R, 2014. Production of recombinant Entamoeba histolytica pyruvate phosphate dikinase and its application in a lateral flow dipstick test for amoebic liver abscess. BMC Infect Dis 14: 182.
Noordin R, Yunus MH, Saidin S, Mohamed Z, Fuentes Corripio I, Rubio JM, Golkar M, Hisam S, Lee R, Mahmud R, 2020. Multi-laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow rapid test for detection of amoebic liver abscess. Am J Trop Med Hyg 103: 2233–2238.
Norsyahida A, Riazi M, Sadjjadi SM, Muhammad Hafiznur Y, Low HC, Zeehaida M, Noordin R, 2013. Laboratory detection of strongyloidiasis: IgG-, IgG4 - and IgE-ELISAs and cross-reactivity with lymphatic filariasis. Parasite Immunol 35: 174–179.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||78||22||3|
A lateral flow rapid test for strongyloidiasis will greatly facilitate the control and elimination of the disease. Previously SsRapid prototype rapid test showed high diagnostic specificity to detect Strongyloides infection, determined using non-Strongyloides sera negative by IgG-ELISAs. Since high specificity is crucial before a test is used for public health control activities, further validation of its specificity is needed. Also, it needs to be ascertained whether non-Strongyloides sera positive by IgG-ELISAs and SsRapid are truly positive for Strongyloides or are cases of cross-reactivity. We performed 84 rapid tests (two types of dipsticks and cassettes) using 34 serum samples. They were divided into four groups based on Strongyloides infection and coinfection with other parasites and the availability of recombinant proteins and rapid tests for the latter. Sera was adsorbed using polystyrene microspheres beads separately coated with four recombinant parasite proteins. The small sample size is a limitation of this study; however, the overall results showed that the sera adsorption procedure was successful, and the SsRapid test is specific.
Financial support: This study was funded by a grant from the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) MyLab grant 1/2018 (No 203.CIPPM.673014 2). We also acknowledge support from MOHE’s Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE) program (No: 311/CIPPM/4401005).
Authors’ addresses: Rahmah Noordin, Nor Suhada Anuar, Nor Mustaiqazah Juri, Anizah Rahumatullah, and Nur Athirah Ahmad Hilmi, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Emelia Osman, Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.