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We determined the prevalence of Kelch 13 mutations and pfmdr1 copy number in samples collected from the Thailand–Myanmar border, the Thailand–Cambodia border, and southern Thailand from 2002 to 2007. C580Y was the most prevalent in Trat (Thailand–Cambodia border) and Ranong (Thailand–Myanmar border) at 42% (24/57) and 13% (6/48), respectively. Less predominant mutations were also identified including R539T (7%, 4/57) and Y493H (2%, 1/57) in Trat, P574L (6%, 3/48) and P553L (2%, 1/48) in Ranong, and N537I and D452E (7%, 1/15) in Sangkhlaburi (Thailand–Myanmar border). Samples from Mae sot (33%, 11/33) harbored the highest percentage of multiple pfmdr1 copies, followed by Trat (18%, 10/57), Chiang Dao in 2003 (13%, 4/30), Phang Nga (5%, 2/44), and Chiang Dao in 2002 (4%, 1/26). This retrospective study provides geographic diversity of K13 and pfmdr1 copies and the emergence of these molecular markers in Thailand, an important background information for future surveillance in the region.
Financial support: This work was supported by the United States Department of Defense, Armed Forces Health Surveillance Division-Global Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance (AFHSD-GEIS) Branch and Defense Malaria Assistance Program (DMAP). The funding source had no role in the analysis or interpretation of data, preparation of the manuscript or the decision to publish.
Disclosure: Material has been reviewed by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. There is no objection to its presentation and/or publication. The opinions or assertions containing herein are the private views of the author, and are not to be construed as official, or as reflecting true views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.
Authors’ addresses: Chaiyaporn Chaisatit, Piyaporn Sai-ngam, Sasikanya Thaloengsok, Sabaithip Sriwichai, Krisada Jongsakul, Michele Spring, Mariusz Wojnarski, Norman Waters, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, and Brian A. Vesely, Department of Bacterial and Parasitic Diseases, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Mark Fukuda, Department of Retrovirology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.