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Multiple Discrete Typing Units of Trypanosoma cruzi Infect Sylvatic Triatoma dimidiata and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in Southeast Mexico

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  • 1 Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México;
  • | 2 Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México;
  • | 3 Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri, La Habana, Cuba;
  • | 4 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México

ABSTRACT.

Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. According to its genetic characteristics, this parasite is divided into six groups (TcI–TcVI) called discrete typing units (DTUs). Trypanosoma cruzi is transmitted to humans by insects of the Triatominae family. In Mexico, despite having a great variety of triatomine species, little is known about vector sylvatic populations and the DTUs associated with them. In this work, molecular markers such as minicircle, miniexon, 18S, and 24S ribosomal genes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the hsp70 gene were used to determine the DTUs present in vectors from rural communities and sylvatic areas inside the Biosphere Reserve Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, in southeast Mexico. One hundred triatomines were collected and two species were identified: Triatoma dimidiata and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus. The infection with T. cruzi was determined in 29% of analyzed vectors from the domestic area and TcI was the predominant DTU. Furthermore, 71% of vectors from the sylvatic environment were infected and TcI, TcII, TcIV, and TcVI were identified. One female and one male of P. rufotuberculatus were infected only with TcI. This is the first report of TcVI in T. dimidiata from the sylvatic area in México and the first report of P. rufotuberculatus infected with T. cruzi in Mexico.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Bertha Espinoza, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, UNAM. Av. Universidad 3000, Col. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Alcaldía Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, México 04510. E-mail: besgu@iibiomedicas.unam.mx † Deceased.

Financial support: This study was partially supported by CONABIO (project JM044), PAPIIT (projectsIN209314 and IG200217). B. E. and V. S.-C thank for the financial support of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, and the Instituto de Biología, UNAM, respectively.

Authors’ addresses: Joselin Díaz-Valdez, Ignacio Martíınez, and Bertha Espinoza, Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México, E-mails: yosed@live.com.mx, imm@biomedicas.unam.mx, and besgu@iibiomedicas.unam.mx. Ángel Rodríguez-Moreno, Gabriel Gutiérrez-Granados, Rodrigo Isaias León-Villegas, and Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Laboratorio de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México, E-mails: tanicandil@hotmail.com, gabrielgg@comunidad.unam.mx, isaias191084@hotmail.com, and victor@ib.unam.mx. Jorge Fraga-Nodarse, Departamento de Parasitologia, Parasitología, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri, La Habana, Cuba, E-mail: jorgefraga@gmail.com.

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