Campbell G et al., 2011. Estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis. Bull World Health Organ 89: 766–774.
Garjito TA , Prihatin MT , Susanti L , Prastowo D , Sa’adah SR , Taviv Y , Satoto TBT , Waluyo J , Manguin S , Frutos R , 2019. First evidence of the presence of genotype-1 of Japanese encephalitis virus in Culex gelidus in Indonesia. Parasit Vectors 12: 19.
Schuh AJ , Guzman H , Tesh RB , Barrett ADT , 2013. Genetic diversity of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the Indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 479–488.
Solomon T , Ni H , Beasley DWC , Ekkelenkamp M , Cardosa MJ , Barrett ADT , 2003. Origin and evolution of Japanese encephalitis virus in Southeast Asia. JVI 77: 3091–3098.
Calzolari M et al., 2015. West Nile virus surveillance in 2013 via mosquito screening in northern Italy and the influence of weather on virus circulation. Coffey LL, ed. PLoS ONE 10: e0140915.
Madewell ZJ , Hemme RR , Adams L , Barrera R , Waterman SH , Johansson MA , 2019. Comparing vector and human surveillance strategies to detect arbovirus transmission: a simulation study for Zika virus detection in Puerto Rico. Sunil S, ed. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13: e0007988.
Kari K et al., 2006. A hospital-based surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in Bali, Indonesia. BMC Med 4: 8.
Reuben R , Tewari SC , Hiriyan J , Akiyama J , 1994. Illustrated keys to species of Culex (Culex) associated with Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Systematics 26: 75.
Faizah AN et al., 2020. Deciphering the virome of Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes, the major vectors of Japanese encephalitis, in Japan. Viruses 12: 264.
Faizah AN et al., 2020. Evaluating the competence of the primary vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and the invasive mosquito species, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in transmitting three Japanese encephalitis virus genotypes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14: 12.
Murty US et al., 2002. Seasonal prevalence of Culex vishnui subgroup, the major vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus in an endemic district of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 18: 290–293.
Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency , 2019. Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika—Bali. Available at: http://iklim.bali.bmkg.go.id/2020/01/10/informasi-iklim-agustus-2019/ (in Indonesian). Accessed August 23, 2020.
Kuwata R et al., 2013. Surveillance of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 681–688.
Ramesh D et al., 2015. Seasonal abundance and role of predominant Japanese encephalitis vectors Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus Theobald in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. Indian J Med Res 142: 23.
Supriyono et al., 2020. Mosquito-borne viruses, insect-specific flaviviruses (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus), Banna virus (family reoviridae, genus seadornavirus), Bogor virus (unassigned member of family permutotetraviridae), and alphamesoniviruses 2 and 3 (family mesoniviridae, genus alphamesonivirus) isolated from Indonesian mosquitoes. J Vet Med Sci 82: 1030–1041.
Kuwata R et al., 2020. Distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus, Japan and Southeast Asia, 2016–2018. Emerg Infect Dis 26: 125–128.
Pyke AT et al., 2020. A case of Japanese encephalitis with a fatal outcome in an Australian who traveled from Bali in 2019. Trop Med Infect Dis 5: 133.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||269||60||3|
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is transmitted between swine, migratory birds, and Culex mosquitoes, and has circulated indigenously in Asia for almost a century. Despite being the country with the highest JEV diversity, surveillance targeting of Indonesia’s vectors is scarce. This study collected mosquitoes from several locations in Tabanan Regency, Bali Island, Indonesia. We captured and classified 3,032 adult Culex mosquitoes into seven species, with Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes making up approximately 90% of the total. Japanese encephalitis virus was identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of a Cx. vishnui mosquito pool. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the JEV as genotype (G) IV. The nucleotide identity was 99% with other JEV GIV isolates obtained from swine sera in 2017 on Bali Island and from a human patient in Australia with a travel history to Bali in 2019. This finding indicated that JEV GIV persists in restricted areas and is circulating between swine-mosquito vectors.
Financial support: This work was supported by the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) Grant Numbers JP17fm0108018 and JP20wm0225007 and the Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Grant Numbers JP20fk0108067 and JP21fk0108613 from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).
Authors’ addresses: Astri Nur Faizah, Daisuke Kobayashi, Yoshihide Maekawa, Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Haruhiko Isawa, and Kyoko Sawabe, Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Astri Nur Faizah, Kozue Miura, and Kazuhiro Hirayama, Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo, Japan, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka, Japan, E-mail: email@example.com. Shifa Fauziyah, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Sri Subekti, Kris Cahyo Mulyatno, Etik Ainun Rohmah, and Maria Inge Lusida, Institute of Tropical Diseases, Airlangga University Surabaya, Indonesia, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Yasuko Mori, Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuo, Kobe, Japan, E-mail: email@example.com.