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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is transmitted between swine, migratory birds, and Culex mosquitoes, and has circulated indigenously in Asia for almost a century. Despite being the country with the highest JEV diversity, surveillance targeting of Indonesia’s vectors is scarce. This study collected mosquitoes from several locations in Tabanan Regency, Bali Island, Indonesia. We captured and classified 3,032 adult Culex mosquitoes into seven species, with Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes making up approximately 90% of the total. Japanese encephalitis virus was identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of a Cx. vishnui mosquito pool. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the JEV as genotype (G) IV. The nucleotide identity was 99% with other JEV GIV isolates obtained from swine sera in 2017 on Bali Island and from a human patient in Australia with a travel history to Bali in 2019. This finding indicated that JEV GIV persists in restricted areas and is circulating between swine-mosquito vectors.
Financial support: This work was supported by the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) Grant Numbers JP17fm0108018 and JP20wm0225007 and the Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Grant Numbers JP20fk0108067 and JP21fk0108613 from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).
Authors’ addresses: Astri Nur Faizah, Daisuke Kobayashi, Yoshihide Maekawa, Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Haruhiko Isawa, and Kyoko Sawabe, Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Astri Nur Faizah, Kozue Miura, and Kazuhiro Hirayama, Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo, Japan, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Shifa Fauziyah, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, E-mail: email@example.com. Sri Subekti, Kris Cahyo Mulyatno, Etik Ainun Rohmah, and Maria Inge Lusida, Institute of Tropical Diseases, Airlangga University Surabaya, Indonesia, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Yasuko Mori, Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuo, Kobe, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.