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Influenza is known to cause severe respiratory illness in HIV-infected adults, but there are few data describing the relationship between HIV infection and influenza in West African countries such as Ghana. We conducted a prospective cohort study in the Shai-Osudoku and Ningo Prampram districts of Ghana from 2014 to 2016. Beginning May 2014, 266 HIV-infected and 510 HIV-uninfected participants age 18 to 73 years were enrolled and monitored for 12 months. We observed 4 and 11 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons, respectively. The overall rate of laboratory-confirmed influenza among HIV-infected participants was 15.0 per 1,000 person years (PY) (95% CI, 0.3–29.80 per 1,000 PY), whereas that among HIV-uninfected participants was 21.6 per 1,000 PY (95% CI, 8.8–34.3 per 1,000 PY) (incidence density ratio, 0.70; P = 0.56). Our study found no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated illness among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals in Ghana.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Financial support: This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. CDC (award no. U011P000607).
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC.
Authors’ addresses: Neha Balachandran, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, and Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Michael Ntiri, Christabel Addo, Elijah Edu-Quansah, Edem Badji, Kwadwo Koram, and William Ampofo, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Jazmin Duque, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, and Battelle Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Kennedy Brightson, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana, E-mail: email@example.com. Ekua Essumanma Houphouet, University of Ghana Hospital, Legon, Ghana, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Talla Nzussouo Ndahwouh, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, and MassGenics, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Meredith McMorrow, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.