We are grateful to those who contributed to this work—namely, the Rwandan Ministry of Health and Rwanda Biomedical through its National Reference Laboratory; Tuberculosis and Other Respiratory Diseases; and HIV, AIDS and STIs divisions. We also thank the staff of MDR/RR-TB treatment clinics in Rwanda (Kibagabaga and Kabutare Hospitals) for their tireless clinical work. Finally, our gratitude goes to the Belgian Directorate General for Development (Brussels, Belgium) for funding this work through a PhD fellowship to J. C. S. N.
WHO, 2020. Global Tuberculosis Report 2020. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Rwanda Biomedical Center, 2020. Rwanda HIV and AIDS National Strategic Plan Extension 2018–2020. pp. 33–34. Available at: https://rbc.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/stra2019/strategie2019/Rwanda%20Strategic%20Plan%20for%20HIV%20Extended%20to%202020.pdf. Accessed on July 7, 2020.
Republic of Rwanda Ministry of Health, 2019. National Tuberculosis and Other Respiratory Communicable Diseases Program Annual Report 2018–2019. Kigali, Rwanda: Republic of Rwanda Ministry of Health.
Ngabonziza JCS 2020. Reduction of diagnostic and treatment delays reduces rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis mortality in Rwanda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 24: 329–339.
Klinkenberg E, 2014. Epidemiological Review and Impact Analysis of Tuberculosis in Rwanda. Available at: https://rbc.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/rbc/surveillance_system_tb_epidemiological_impact_assessment_rwanda_2014.pdf. Accessed July 10, 2020.
Trebucq A 2018. Treatment outcome with a short multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimen in nine African countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 22: 17–25.
Muvunyi CM 2019. Highly successful treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant and genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Rwanda. Trop Med Int Health 24: 879–887.
Loveday M, Reuter A, Furin J, Seddon JA, Cox H, 2019. Comment the STREAM trial: missed opportunities and lessons for future clinical trials. Lancet Infect Dis 3099: 2018–2019.
Luo X, Wu F, Ma J, Xiao H, Cui H, 2018. Immunological recovery in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after intensive phase treatment. J Int Med Res 46: 3539–3551.
de Martino M, Lodi L, Galli L, Chiappini E, 2019. Immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a narrative review. Front Pediatr 7: 1–8.
Chem ED, Van Hout MC, Hope V, 2019. Treatment outcomes and antiretroviral uptake in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis 19: 1–8.
Ndlovu Z 2020. Viewpoint framework for the implementation of advanced HIV disease diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa: programmatic perspectives. Lancet HIV 3018: 1–7.
Barnabas RV Priorities for HIV Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Population Perspective.
Bisson GP 2020. Mortality in adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV by antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis drug use: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Lancet 396: 402–411.
Bastard M 2018. Outcomes of HIV-infected versus HIV-non-infected patients treated for drug-resistance tuberculosis: multicenter cohort study. PLoS One 13: 1–14.
Chingonzoh R 2018. Risk factors for mortality among adults registered on the routine drug resistant tuberculosis reporting database in the eastern Cape Province, South Africa, 2011 to 2013. PLoS One 13: 1–15.
Semuto Ngabonziza JC 2020. Case report: dynamics of acquired fluoroquinolone resistance under standardized short-course treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg103: 1443–1446.
Semuto Ngabonziza JC 2020. Prevalence and drivers of false-positive rifampicin-resistant Xpert MTB / RIF results: a prospective observational study in Rwanda. Lancet Microbe 1: e238.
Rwanda Biomedical Centre, 2020. Consolidated Operational Guidelines on Handbook Tuberculosis.