• 1.

    Britton WJ, Lockwood DN, 2004. Leprosy. Lancet 363: 12091219.

  • 2.

    Pettit JH, Rees RJ, 1964. Sulphone resistance in leprosy. An experimental and clinical study. Lancet 2: 673674.

  • 3.

    World Health Organization, 2019. Global leprosy update, 2018: moving towards a leprosy-free world. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 94: 389421.

  • 4.

    Long S, Yu M, Yan L, Zhang G, Sun P, 2017. Epidemiological features of leprosy in China from 2011 to 2015. Chin J Dermatol 50: 400403.

  • 5.

    Chen XS, Li WZ, Jiang C, Ye GY, 2001. Leprosy in China: epidemiological trends between 1949 and 1998. Bull World Health Organ 79: 306312.

  • 6.

    Shen J, Zhang G, Chen X, Zhou M, Yu M, Yan L, 2008. A long-term evolution on the epidemiological characteristics of leprosy, towards the goal of its elimination in 1949–2007 in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 29: 10951100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Qian MB, Chen J, Bergquist R, Li ZJ, Li SZ, Xiao N, Utzinger J, Zhou XN, 2019. Neglected tropical diseases in the People’s Republic of China: progress towards elimination. Infect Dis Poverty 8: 86.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Chen L, Shi W, Chen Q, 2018. Research progress on leprosy in domestic and foreign countries. J Public Health Prev Med 29: 7981.

  • 9.

    Gootz TD, Barrett JF, Sutcliffe JA, 1990. Inhibitory effects of quinolone antibacterial agents on eucaryotic topoisomerases and related test systems. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34: 812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gonzalez AB, Maestre JL, Hernandez O, Columbie Y, Atrio N, Martin M, Fernández AM, Rodríguez J, 1993. Survey for secondary dapsone and rifampicin resistance in Cuba. Lepr Rev 64: 128135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Wang L, Wang Y, Jin S, Wu Z, Chin DP, Koplan JP, Wilson ME, 2008. Emergence and control of infectious diseases in China. Lancet 372: 15981605.

  • 12.

    Kim HJ, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN, 2000. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med 19: 335351.

  • 13.

    National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China, 2019. Implementation Plan on the Programme on the Elimination of Leprosy Damage in China (2012–2020). Available at: http://www.nhc.gov.cn/wjw/gfxwj/201304/d1dfccbb4007487da1897f625aae671a.shtml. Accessed October 16, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Yu MW, Yan LB, Shen JP, Sun YM, Zhang GC, 2010. Epidemiological analysis on leprosy in China, 2009. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 31: 11551157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Fava VM, Dallmann-Sauer M, Schurr E, 2020. Genetics of leprosy: today and beyond. Hum Genet 139: 835846.

  • 16.

    Liu H 2017. Genome-wide analysis of protein-coding variants in leprosy. J Invest Dermatol 137: 25442551.

  • 17.

    Wang Z 2018. Discovery of 4 exonic and 1 intergenic novel susceptibility loci for leprosy. Clin Genet 94: 259263.

  • 18.

    Wang D 2018. Mis-sense variants in HIF1A and LACC1 contribute to leprosy risk in Han Chinese. Am J Hum Genet 102: 794805.

  • 19.

    Zhang X 2019. Meta-analysis identifies major histocompatiblity complex loci in or near HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-C as associated with leprosy in Chinese Han population. J Investig Dermatol 139: 957960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Chong M 2019. Study on the association between HLA- DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 loci, and leprosy susceptibility in Yi nationality, Sichuan province, China. China J Lepr Skin Dis 27: 8386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Zhao T, Yang C, Zhou C, Lai Y, Li J, 2018. Awareness and acquisition of knowledge on leprosy in Qianxinan, Guizhou. China J Lepr Skin Dis 34: 278281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kerr-Pontes LR, Montenegro AC, Barreto ML, Werneck GL, Feldmeier H, 2004. Inequality and leprosy in Northeast Brazil: an ecological study. Int J Epidemiol 33: 262269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    White C, Franco-Paredes C, 2015. Leprosy in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 28: 8094.

  • 24.

    Browne SG, 1985. The history of leprosy. Hastings RC, ed. Leprosy. Edinburgh, Scotland: Longman Group Ltd., 114.

  • 25.

    Varkevisser CM, Lever P, Alubo O, Burathoki K, Idawani C, Moreira TM, Patrobas P, Yulizar M, 2009. Gender and leprosy: case studies in Indonesia, Nigeria, Nepal and Brazil. Lepr Rev 80: 6576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Richardus JH, Meima A, Croft RP, Habbema JD, 1999. Case detection, gender and disability in leprosy in Bangladesh: a trend analysis. Lepr Rev 70: 160173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ebeigbe JA, Kio F, 2011. Ocular leprosy in institutionalized Nigerian patients. Ghana Med J 45: 5053.

  • 28.

    Liu YY, Yu MW, Ning Y, Wang H, 2018. A study on gender differences in newly detected leprosy cases in Sichuan, China, 2000–2015. Int J Dermatol 57: 14921499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Yang WZ, 2019. Dramatic achievements in infectious disease prevention and treatment in China during the past 70 years. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 40: 14931498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epidemiological Characteristics and Trends of Registered Leprosy Cases in China From 2004 to 2016

View More View Less
  • 1 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China;
  • 2 Beijing Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, China

Abstract.

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. China was once one of the countries with severe leprosy epidemics, but its incidence has remained low in recent years. Despite this, there has been no decrease in its incidence more recently, and it is still a public health problem which needs to be controlled. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and trends in the detection rate of new cases of leprosy in China between 2004 and 2016. There were 4,519 cases of leprosy in 28 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions between 2004 and 2016, and the total incidence was 0.02815 (per 100,000 individuals) and 21 deaths. The overall incidence of leprosy showed an inverted “V” distribution (i.e., an increase followed by a decrease). Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Guangxi were the top five regions with the highest incidence rates, and they accounted for 68.7% of the total cases. There were more male patients than female patients, and peasants accounted for 71.7% of the leprosy cases. The patients with leprosy in China were mainly concentrated in the age-group 15–44 years, as this group accounted for 57.2% of the total cases. The purpose of this study is to explore the epidemiology of leprosy in China. This analysis will be useful for future monitoring of leprosy and establishment of public health measures in China, in keeping with the “Programme for the Elimination of Leprosy in China 2011–2020.”

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Kanglin Wan, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, P.O. Box 5, Changping, Beijing 102206, People’s Republic of China. E-mail: wankanglin@icdc.cn

Authors’ addresses: Yi Jiang and Kanglin Wan, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China, E-mails: jiangyi@icdc.cn and wankanglin@icdc.cn. Xiangfeng Dou, Beijing Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, China, E-mail: beijingcdc@163.com.

Save