• 1.

    World Health Organization, 2020. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis). Available at: http://www.who.int/chagas/en/. Accessed November 10, 2020.

  • 2.

    Pan American Health Organization, 2018. Paraguay Interrupts Vector Transmission of Chagas in the Home. Available at: https://www.paho.org/en/news/8-8-2018-paraguay-interrupts-vector-transmission-chagas-home. Accessed November 10, 2020.

  • 3.

    Galvão C, Carcavallo RU, Rocha DS, Jurberg J, 2003. A checklist of the current valid species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and their geographical distribution, with nomenclatural and taxonomic notes. Zootaxa 202: 136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, 2020. Enfermedad de Chagas: Se Calcula 50.000 Nuevos casos Por Año en América y 150.000 Personas Infectadas en Paraguay. Available at: https://www.paho.org/par/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=677:enfermedad-chagas-calcula-50-000-nuevos-casos-ano-america-150-000-personas-infectadas-paraguay&Itemid=258. Accessed November 10, 2020.

  • 5.

    Sánchez Z, Russomando G, Pineda D, Guillén L, Paredes B, Villalba de Feltes C, 2016. Triatoma sordida: indicadores de adaptación y transmisión de Trypanosoma cruzi en intradomicilio del Chaco Paraguayo. Mem Inst Investig Cienc Salud 14: 96101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sánchez Z, Russomando G, Pineda D, Guillén L, Paredes B, Villalba de Feltes C, 2018. Fuente de alimentación de ejemplares de Triatoma sordida en un área con alto riesgo de domiciliación en el Chaco Paraguayo. Mem Inst Investig Cienc Salud 16: 7883.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    González-Brítez N, 2013. Population dynamics of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) related to Trypanosoma cruzi in Paraguay with emphasis on Triatoma sordida. Mem Inst Investig Cienc Salud 11: 105111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Moncayo A, Silveira AC, 2009. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104: 1730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lent H, Wygodzynsky P, 1979. Revision of the Triatominae (Hemiptera – Reduviidae) and their significance as vectors of Chagas’ disease. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 163: 123520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    González-Brítez N, Carrasco HJ, Purroy CEM, Feliciangeli MD, Maldonado M, López E, Segovia MJ, Arias AR, 2014. Genetic and morphometric variability of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from the eastern and western areas of Paraguay. Front Public Health 2: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sánchez Z, Guillén L, Pineda D, Paredes B, Feltes CV, Russomando G, 2020. Técnicas moleculares integradas a la vigilancia entomológica de vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas: estudio del vector secundario Triatoma sordida en la Región Oriental del Paraguay. Mem Inst Investig Cienc Salud 18: 7683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Panzera F, Pérez R, Panzera Y, Ferrandis I, Ferreiro MJ, Calleros L, 2010. Cytogenetics and genome evolution in the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). Cytogenet Genome Res 128: 7787.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Panzera F, Pita S, Nattero J, Panzera Y, Galvão C, Chavez T, Rojas De Arias A, Cardozo Téllez L, Noireau F, 2015. Cryptic speciation in the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) revealed by chromosomal markers. Parasit Vectors 8: 495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Panzera Y, Pita S, Ferreiro MJ, Ferrandis I, Lages C, Pérez R, Silva AE, Guerra M, Panzera F, 2012. High dynamics of rDNA cluster location in kissing bug holocentric chromosomes (Triatominae, Heteroptera). Cyt Gen Res 138: 5667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pita S, Lorite P, Nattero J, Galvão C, Alevi KCC, Teves SC, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Panzera F, 2016. New arrangements on several species subcomplexes of Triatoma genus based on the chromosomal position of ribosomal genes (Hemiptera-Triatominae). Infect Genet Evol 43: 225231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Pita S, Panzera F, Ferrandis I, Galvão C, Gómez-Palacio A, Panzera Y, 2013. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: 376382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Alevi KCC, Moreira FFF, Jurberg J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2016. Description of the diploid chromosome set of Triatoma pintodiasi (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Genet Mol Res 25: 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bardella VB, Pita S, Vanzela ALL, Galvão C, Panzera F, 2016. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 111: 614662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Borsatto KC, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Alevi KCC, 2018. Identification key for the Chagas disease vectors of five Brazilian states, based on cytogenetics data. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 303305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Borsatto KC, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Alevi KCC, 2019. CytoKey: identification key for the Chagas disease vectors of the largest Brazilian urban center, based on cytogenetics data. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101: 113115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    González-Britez NE, Martínez CE, Feliciangeli MD, Carrasco HJ, 2006. Estructura genética de poblaciones domésticas y peridomésticas de Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) provenientes de dos regiones endémicas del Paraguay. Arch Venez Med Trop 4: 3236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Sánchez LZ, Russomando G, Guillén R, 2012. Enfermedad de Chagas: Estudio de un Vector Secundario. Chisinau, Moldova: Editorial Académica Española.

  • 23.

    González N, Gurtler R, Rojas de Arias A, de Marco R, Cousiño B, 1997. Feeding sources of domestic triatomines (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) in a endemic locality for Chagas disease. Annual Reports, IICS. Ed. EFACIM, 71–76.

  • 24.

    Fraenkel S, Salvioni OD, Rojas de Arias A, Arze VP, Rolón M, Ramirez N, Gómez CV, 2020. Identification of bloodmeal sources of triatomines captured in the Paraguayan Chaco region of South America by means of molecular biology analysis. Pathog Glob Health 114: 3039.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chagas Disease Vectors of Paraguay: Entomoepidemiological Aspects of Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859) and Development of an Identification Key for Paraguayan Triatomines Based on Cytogenetics Data

View More View Less
  • 1 Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (IICS), Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Campus Universitario, San Lorenzo, Paraguay;
  • | 2 Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Rua Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, Brazil;
  • | 3 Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, SP, Brazil;
  • | 4 Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Protozoarios, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela;
  • | 5 Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Rocha Lima, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Abstract.

Approximately 150,000 people are living with Chagas disease in Paraguay. Although the country has been since 2008 considered as one of the countries that succeeded in interrupted the vector transmission of Chagas by Triatoma infestans in houses of the eastern region, there are nine other species notified in the country that are potential vectors and also deserve attention from vector control programs. Thus, we carried out an entomoepidemiological study of T. sordida in the eastern and western regions of the country and we developed an identification key for Paraguay's triatomines based on cytogenetic data. Between the years 2003 to 2004, 271 specimens of T. sordida were captured in domestic, peridomestic, and wild ecotopes, with 131 insects caught in the eastern (Alto Paraguay, Boquerón and Pte. Hayes) and 140 in the western region of Paraguay (Guairá and Paraguarí). High rates of peridomicillary infestation were observed for both regions. Besides that, the natural infection of the captured insects was detected by optical microscopy in 12% and 10%, and by PCR in 21% and 20% in the eastern and western regions, respectively. Based on cytogenetic data from nine of ten species notified in Paraguay, an identification key was developed to differentiate all taxa. Thus, given the vectorial importance of T. sordida, we highlight the need for continued attention from Paraguay's vector control programs for this species. Further, we provide a taxonomic key that assists in the correct classification of Paraguayan triatomines.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Cleber Galvão, IOC/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brazil 4365, Pavilhão Rocha Lima, sala 505, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. E-mail: clebergalvao@gmail.com

These authors are co-first authors.

Authors’ addresses: Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez-Britez, Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (IICS), Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Campus Universitario, San Lorenzo, Paraguay, E-mail: gbritez.nilsa@gmail.com. Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Rua Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, and Laboratório de Parasitologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, SP, Brazil, E-mail: kaiochaboli@hotmail.com. Ariane Cristina Caris Garcia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Rua Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, E-mail: ariane.garcia@outlook.com. Clara Elena Martínez Purroy and Hernán José Carrasco, Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Protozoarios, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela, E-mails: clara.martinezp@gmail.com and hjcarrasco@yahoo.com. Cleber Galvão, Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Rocha Lima, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, E-mail: clebergalvao@gmail.com.

Financial support: This work was conducted with the financial support of PAHO/HDP/HDR/RG/VEN3 223, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Process number 2017/05015-7), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.

Disclosure: The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.

Save