• 1.

    Spiropoulou CF, Bente DA, 2020. Orthohantavirus, orthonairovirus, orthobunyavirus, and phlebovirus. Howley PM, Knipe DM, Whelan SPJ, eds. Fields Virology. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 750783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Sipovskij PV, 1944. Slučai svoeobraznogo želudočno-kišečnogo krovotečeniâ. Klin Med (Mosk) 22: 6467.

  • 3.

    Sokolov AE, Čumakov MP, Kolachev AA, 1945. Krymskaâ Gemorragičeskaâ Lihoradka (Ostryj Infekcionnyj Kapillârotoksikoz). Simferopol, USSR: Izdaniye Otdel'noj Primorskoj Armii.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Ioffe , 1944. Ob odnoj svoeobraznoj forme gemorragičeskogo diateza. Klin Med (Mosk) 22: 2530.

  • 5.

    Hoogstraal H, 1979. The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol 15: 307417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Ergonul O, Whitehouse CA, 2007. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: A Global Perspective. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

  • 7.

    Blair PW, Kuhn JH, Pecor DB, Apanaskevich DA, Kortepeter MG, Cardile AP, Polanco Ramos A, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, 2019. An emerging biothreat: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in southern and western Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 1623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Spengler JR, Estrada-Peña A, Garrison AR, Schmaljohn C, Spiropoulou CF, Bergeron É, Bente DA, 2016. A chronological review of experimental infection studies of the role of wild animals and livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Antivir Res 135: 3147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Mostafavi E, Chinikar S, Moradi M, Bayat N, Meshkat M, Fard MK, Ghiasi SM, 2013. A case report of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in ostriches in Iran. Open Virol J 7: 8183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Shepherd AJ, Swanepoel R, Leman PA, Shepherd SP, 1987. Field and laboratory investigation of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection in birds. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81: 10041007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kar S, Rodriguez SE, Akyildiz G, Cajimat MNB, Bircan R, Mears MC, Bente DA, Keles AG, 2020. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in tortoises and Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in east Thrace, Turkey: potential of a cryptic transmission cycle. Parasit Vectors 13: 201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Bodur H, Akinci E, Ascioglu S, Öngürü P, Uyar Y, 2012. Subclinical infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Turkey Emerg Infect Dis 18: 640642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Schwarz TF, Nsanze H, Ameen AM, 1997. Clinical features of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates. Infection 25: 364367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    World Health Organization, 2020. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever/#tab=tab_1. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    al-Abri SS 2019. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Oman. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13: e0007100.

  • 16.

    Ergonul O, 2007. Clinical and pathologic features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Ergonul O, Whitehouse CA, eds. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: A Global Perspective. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 207220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Sağmak Tartar A, Balin , Akbulut A, Demirdağ K, 2019. Türkiye’nin doğusunda Kırım Kongo kanamalı ateşi: epidemiyolojik ve klinik değerlendirme. Türk Parazitol Derg 43: 2629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Tripathi S, Bhati R, Gopalakrishnan M, Bohra GK, Tiwari S, Panda S, Sahay RR, Yadav PD, Nag VL, Garg MK, 2020. Clinical profile and outcome of patients with Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever: a hospital based observational study from Rajasthan, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 114: 643649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Akuffo R 2016. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in livestock ticks and animal handler seroprevalence at an abattoir in Ghana. BMC Infect Dis 16: 324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Sharifi-Mood B, Mardani M, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Rahnavardi M, Hatami H, Metanat M, 2008. Clinical and epidemiologic features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among children and adolescents from southeastern Iran. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27: 561563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Tezer H, Sucaklı IA, Saylı TR, Celikel E, Yakut I, Kara A, Tunc B, Ergonul O, 2010. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in children. J Clin Virol 48: 184186.

  • 22.

    Leblebicioglu H, 2010. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia. Int J Antimicrob Agents 36 (Suppl 1): S43S46.

  • 23.

    Nevill L, 1961. Correspondence. East Afr Med J 38: 174.

  • 24.

    Johnson BK 1983. Viral haemorrhagic fever surveillance in Kenya, 1980–1981. Trop Geogr Med 35: 4347.

  • 25.

    Dunster L, Dunster M, Ofula V, Beti D, Kazooba-Voskamp F, Burt F, Swanepoel R, DeCock KM, 2002. First documentation of human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 10051006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Morrill JC, Soliman AK, Imam IZ, Botros BAM, Moussa MI, Watts DM, 1990. Serological evidence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viral infection among camels imported into Egypt. J Trop Med Hyg 93: 201204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    McCarthy MC, Haberberger RL, Salib AW, Soliman BA, el-Tigani A, Khalid IO, Watts DM, 1996. Evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the Khartoum province of Sudan. J Med Virol 48: 141146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Hassanein KM, el-Azazy OME, 2000. Isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from ticks on imported Sudanese sheep in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 20: 153154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Mustafa ME, Khristova ML, Saeed NS, Elageb RM, Nichol ST, 2010. Nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Sudan Emerg Infect Dis 16: 837839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Causey OR, Kemp GE, Madbouly MH, Lee VH, 1969. Arbovirus surveillance in Nigeria, 1964–1967. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 62: 249253.

  • 31.

    David-West TS, Cooke AR, David-West AS, 1974. Seroepidemiology of Congo virus (related to the virus of Crimean haemorrhagic fever) in Nigeria. Bull World Health Organ 51: 543546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Causey OR, Kemp GE, Madbouly MH, David-West TS, 1970. Congo virus from domestic livestock, African hedgehog, and arthropods in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19: 846850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Williams RW, Causey OR, Kemp GE, 1972. Ixodid ticks from domestic livestock in Ibadan, Nigeria as carriers of viral agents. J Med Entomol 9: 443445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Bukbuk DN, Dowall SD, Lewandowski K, Bosworth A, Baba SS, Varghese A, Watson RJ, Bell A, Atkinson B, Hewson R, 2016. Serological and virological evidence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus circulation in the human population of Borno state, northeastern Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0005126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Pigott DM 2017. Local, national, and regional viral haemorrhagic fever pandemic potential in Africa: a multistage analysis. Lancet 390: 26622672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Messina JP 2015. The global distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 109: 503513.

  • 37.

    Chauhan RP, Dessie ZG, Noreddin A, El Zowalaty ME, 2020. Systematic review of important viral diseases in Africa in light of the “One health” concept. Pathogens 9: 301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    United Nations Statistics Division, 2020. Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use (M49). Geographic Regions. Available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Georgia Southern University, 2020. United States National Tick Collection. Available at: https://cosm.georgiasouthern.edu/usntc/. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Gargili A, Estrada-Peña A, Spengler JR, Lukashev A, Nuttall PA, Bente DA, 2017. The role of ticks in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: a review of published field and laboratory studies. Antivir Res 144: 93119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Zeller HG, Cornet JP, Camicas JL, 1994. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west African wild ground-feeding birds to Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50: 676681.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    World Health Organization, 2020. Prioritizing Diseases for Research and Development in Emergency Contexts. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/activities/prioritizing-diseases-for-research-and-development-in-emergency-contexts. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Simpson DIH, Knight EM, Courtois G, Williams MC, Weinbren MP, Kibukamusoke JW, 1967. Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. Part 1-human isolations - clinical notes. East Afr Med J 44: 8692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Woodall JP, Williams MC, Simpson DIH, 1967. Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. Part 2-identification studies. East Afr Med J 44: 9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Woodall JP, 2007. Personal reflections. Ergonul O, Whitehouse CA, eds. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: a Global Perspective. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Grard G, Drexler JF, Fair J, Muyembe JJ, Wolfe ND, Drosten C, Leroy EM, 2011. Re-emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in central Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Sas MA, Mertens M, Isselmou E, Reimer N, el Mamy BO, Doumbia B, Groschup MH, 2017. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-specific antibody detection in cattle in Mauritania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 17: 582587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Robin Y, 1977. Centre collaborateur O.M.S. de référence et de recherche pour les arbovirus. Dakar, Senegal: Rapport de l'Institute Pasteur.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Georges AJ, Saluzzo JF, Gonzalez JP, Dussarat GV, 1980. Arboviroses en centrafrique: incidence et aspects diagnostiques chez l’homme. Méd Trop (Mars) 40: 561568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Gonzalez JP, Mc Cormick JB, Saluzzo JF, Georges AJ, 1983. Les fièvres hémorragiques africaines d’origine virale: contribution à leur étude en République Centrafricaine. Cah O.R.S.T.O.M. Entomol Méd Parasit XXI: 119130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Georges AJ, Gonzalez JP, 1986. Could Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever be a biohazard in the central African Republic? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80: 994995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Johnson ED, Gonzalez JP, Georges A, 1993. Haemorrhagic fever virus activity in equatorial Africa: distribution and prevalence of filovirus reactive antibody in the central African Republic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 530535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Mathiot CC, Hervé VM, Georges AJ, 1990. Antibodies to haemorrhagic fever viruses and to selected arboviruses in monkeys from the central African Republic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84: 732733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Guilherme JM, Gonella-Legall C, Legall F, Nakoume E, Vincent J, 1996. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in Zebu cattle in the central African Republic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 3133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Dégallier N, Cornet JP, Saluzzo JF, Germain M, Hervé JP, Camicas JL, Sureau P, 1985. Ecologie des arbovirus à tiques en République Centrafricaine. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 78: 296310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Sureau P, Cornet JP, Germain M, Camicas JL, Robin Y, 1976. Enquête sur les arbovirus transmis par les tiques en République Centrafricaine (1973–1974). Isolement des virus Dugbe, CHF/Congo, Jos et Bhanja. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 69: 2833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever update. Commun Dis Surv Bull 17: 2.

  • 58.

    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in South Africa. Commun Dis Surv Bull 17: 3.

  • 59.

    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in free state province. Commun Dis Surv Bull 17: 3.

  • 60.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (02): South Africa (NC). ProMED archive number 20190330.6394622. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20190330.6394622. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (06): South Africa (NW). ProMED archive number 20190511.6462345. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20190511.6462345. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, 2019. An update on CCHF. Commun Dis Surv Bull 18: 2.

  • 63.

    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, 2020. Surveillance. Available at: https://www.nicd.ac.za/our-services/surveillance/. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Carmichael IH, 1976. Ticks from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Ngamiland, Botswana. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 43: 2729.

  • 65.

    Theiler G, 1956. Zoological survey of the union of South Africa. Tick survey, part IX. The distribution of the three South African Hyalommas or bontpoots. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 27: 249260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Apanaskevich DA, Horak IG, 2008. The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844: V. re-evaluation of the taxonomic rank of taxa comprising the H. (Euhyalomma) marginatum Koch complex of species (Acari: Ixodidae) with redescription of all parasitic stages and notes on biology. Int J Acarol 34: 1342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Balinandi S 2018. Investigation of an isolated case of human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in central Uganda, 2015. Int J Infect Dis 68: 8893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Weidmann M 2016. Biosafety standards for working with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Gen Virol 97: 27992808.

  • 69.

    Bower H 2019. Detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever cases in a severe undifferentiated febrile illness outbreak in the Federal Republic of Sudan: a retrospective epidemiological and diagnostic cohort study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13: e0007571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Kohl C, Eldegail M, Mahmoud I, Schrick L, Radonic A, Emmerich P, Rieger T, Gunther S, Nitsche A, Osman AA, 2016. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, 2013 and 2014 Sudan. Int J Infect Dis 53S: 4163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Abdelhakam HAA, Taha MA, 2014. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in southern Kordofan. Sudan J Paediatr 14: 8184.

  • 72.

    Elata AT, Karsany MS, Elageb RM, Hussain MA, Eltom KH, Elbashir MI, Aradaib IE, 2011. A nosocomial transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in north Kordufan, Sudan. Virol J 8: 303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Karsany MS, Khristova ML, Elageb RM, Mohamed MEH, Nichol ST, 2011. Multiple Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains are associated with disease outbreaks in Sudan, 2008–2009. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Wasfi F 2016. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia. Parasite 23: 10.

  • 75.

    El-Bahnasawy MM, Sabah AAA, Saleh HAA, Morsy TA, 2012. The tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Africa, Asia, Europe, and America: what about Egypt? J Egypt Soc Parasitol 42: 373384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Darwish MA, Imam IZE, Omar FM, Hoogstraal H, 1978. Results of a preliminary seroepidemiological survey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Egypt. Acta Virol 22: 77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Mohamed M, Said AR, Murad A, Graham R, 2008. A serological survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in animals in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Vet Ital 44: 513517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Horton KC, Wasfy M, Samaha H, Abdel-Rahman B, Safwat S, Abdel Fadeel M, Mohareb E, Dueger E, 2014. Serosurvey for zoonotic viral and bacterial pathogens among slaughtered livestock in Egypt. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14: 633639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Naval Medical Research and Development, 2020. Naval Medical Research Unit - No. 3. Available at: https://www.med.navy.mil/sites/nmrc/Cairo/Pages/HomeCairo.aspx. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Saluzzo JF, Digoutte JP, Cornet M, Baudon D, Roux J, Robert V, 1984. Isolation of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Rift valley fever viruses in upper volta. Lancet 1: 1179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81.

    Kebede S, Duales S, Yokouide A, Alemu W, 2010. Trends of major disease outbreaks in the African region, 2003–2007. East Afr J Public Health 7: 2029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Mauritania: (GD). ProMED archive number 20180502.5778839. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180502.5778839. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Kleib AS, Salihy SM, Ghaber SM, Sidiel BW, Sidiya KC, Bettar ES, 2016. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with acute subdural hematoma, Mauritania, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 22: 13051306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 84.

    Saluzzo JF, Aubry P, McCormick J, Digoutte JP, 1985. Haemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Mauritania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Nabeth P 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21432149.

  • 86.

    Gonzalez JP, LeGuenno B, Guillaud M, Wilson ML, 1990. A fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Mauritania: virological and serological evidence suggesting epidemic transmission. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84: 573576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    World Health Organization, 2020. Geographic Distribution of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/images/default-source/health-topics/crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever/global-cchfrisk-2017.png?sfvrsn=4b961c4c_6. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Lwande OW, Irura Z, Tigoi C, Chepkorir E, Orindi B, Musila L, Venter M, Fischer A, Sang R, 2012. Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Ijara district, Kenya. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 727732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Nyataya J, Maraka M, Lemtudo A, Masakhwe C, Mutai B, Njaanake K, Estambale BB, Nyakoe N, Siangla J, Waitumbi JN, 2020. Serological evidence of yersiniosis, tick-borne encephalitis, west Nile, hepatitis E, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Lyme borreliosis, and brucellosis in febrile patients presenting at diverse hospitals in Kenya. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 20: 348357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Safronetz D 2016. Vectorborne infections, Mali Emerg Infect Dis 22: 340342.

  • 91.

    Baumann J, Knüpfer M, Ouedraogo J, Traoré BY, Heitzer A, Kané B, Maiga B, Sylla M, Kouriba B, Wölfel R, 2019. Lassa and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Mali Emerg Infect Dis 25: 9991002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2020. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (03): Mali (Mopti) fatal. ProMED archive number 20200207.6963297. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20200207.6963297. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 93.

    Boushab BM, Kelly M, Kébé H, Bollahi MA, Basco LK, 2020. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mauritania. Emerg Infect Dis 26: 817818.

  • 94.

    Muianga AF 2017. First serological evidence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in febrile patients in Mozambique. Int J Infect Dis 62: 119123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (09): Namibia, Update. ProMED archive number 20190524.6482638. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20190524.6482638. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Gever - Namibia (03): (KH). ProMED archive number 20180407.5730960. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180407.5730960. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Namibia (02): (OS). ProMED archive number 20180305.5665590. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180305.5665590. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Namibia: (OH). ProMED archive number 20180209.5615643. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180209.5615643. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2017. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Namibia (04): (OS) fatal, contacts. ProMED archive number 20170812.5244149. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20170812.5244149. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2017. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Namibia (03): (OH). ProMED archive number 20170324.4923675. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20170324.4923675. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2017. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Namibia: (OH) fatal, quarantine. ProMED archive number 20170227.4866654. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20170227.4866654. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2014. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - South Africa Ex Namibia. ProMED archive number 20140919.2788764. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20140919.2788764. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103.

    Burt FJ, Swanepoel R, 2005. Molecular epidemiology of African and Asian Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever isolates. Epidemiol Infect 133: 659666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Zivcec M, Albarino CG, Guerrero LIW, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, Swanepoel R, Rollin PE, Spiropoulou CF, 2017. Genome sequences of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated in South Africa, Namibia, and Turkey. Genome Announc 5: e01060-17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2015. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - Senegal (SL). ProMED archive number 20151111.3784725. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20151111.3784725. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 106.

    Tall A 2009. Deux cas de fièvre hémorragique de Crimée-Congo. (FHCC) contractée au Sénégal, en 2004, par des résidentes temporaires. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 102: 159161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 107.

    Nabeth P, Thior M, Faye O, Simon F, 2004. Human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Sénégal. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 18811882.

  • 108.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (12): Senegal. ProMED archive number 20191127.6797965. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20191127.6797965. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 109.

    Jauréguiberry S, Tattevin P, Tarantola A, Legay F, Tall A, Nabeth P, Zeller H, Michelet C, 2005. Imported Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Clin Microbiol 43: 49054907.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Zhang Y 2019. Next-generation sequencing study of pathogens in serum from patients with febrile jaundice in Sierra Leone. Biomed Environ Sci 32: 363370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2013. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Uganda (04): clarification. ProMED archive number 20130826.1903826. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20130826.1903826. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Swanepoel R, Shepherd AJ, Leman PA, Shepherd SP, McGillivray GM, Erasmus MJ, Searle LA, Gill DE, 1987. Epidemiologic and clinical features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Southern Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 120132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 113.

    Kalunda M, Mukwaya LG, 1978. Isolation of Congo Virus from Man and Ticks in Uganda. International Virology IV: Abstracts of the Fourth International Congress for Virology. The Hague, Netherlands: Section on Virology of the International Association of Microbiological Societies, 290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - Africa: Uganda (MZ). ProMED archive number 20190106.6244399. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20190106.6244399. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (11): Uganda (RK). ProMED archive number 20181116.6145864. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20181116.6145864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (10): Uganda (BR). ProMED archive number 20181102.6123834. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20181102.6123834. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (09): Uganda (KM). ProMED archive number 20180826.5988686. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180826.5988686. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (08): Uganda, WHO. ProMED archive number 20180806.5949636. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180806.5949636. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (05): Uganda (MD) alert. ProMED archive number 20180614.5852928. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180614.5852928. Accessed March 23, 2021..

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (03): Uganda (NK). ProMED archive number 20180201.5598684. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180201.5598684. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa: Uganda (LW). ProMED archive number 20180106.5541551. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180106.5541551. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (10): Uganda (LY) Fatal. ProMED archive number 20190805.6605945. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20190805.6605945. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 123.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2019. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (04): Uganda (JI) Fatal. Update. ProMED archive number 20190424.6436525. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20190424.6436525. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2018. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - East Africa (04): Uganda. ProMED archive number 20180528.5821815. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20180528.5821815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Switkes J, Nannyonga B, Mugisha JYT, Nakakawa J, 2016. A mathematical model for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: tick-borne dynamics with conferred host immunity. J Biol Dyn 10: 5970.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Munube GMR, Yazarna GW, Nsubuga E, 1972. The out-patient dispensary. East Afr Virus Res Inst Rep 22: 67.

  • 127.

    Knight EM, Henderson BE, Tukei PM, Lule M, West R, 1968. Case histories with arbovirus isolations. East Afr Virus Res Inst Rep 17: 1415.

  • 128.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2020. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - Africa (02): Uganda (Kagadi). ProMED archive number 20200128.6924924. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20200128.6924924. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Stuart J, 1998. Suspected case of Crimean/Congo haemorrhagic fever in British traveller returning from Zimbabwe. Euro Surveill 2. Available at: https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/esw.02.08.01256-en#html_fulltext.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Chantal J, Dorchies P, Legueno B, 1994. A study on some zoonoses in Djibouti Republic. 1. Ruminants from Djibouti slaughterhouse. Rev Méd Vét (Toulouse) 145: 633640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131.

    Walker A, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Estrada-Peña A, Horak I, Latif A, Pegram R, Preston P, 2014. Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: a Guide to Identification of Species. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Bioscience Reports, 114121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Horton KC, Fahmy NT, Watany N, Zayed A, Mohamed A, Ahmed AA, Rollin PE, Dueger EL, 2016. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Alkhurma (Alkhumra) virus in ticks in Djibouti. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16: 680682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Kumsa B, Socolovschi C, Almeras L, Raoult D, Parola P, 2015. Occurrence and genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 10741081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Wood OL, Lee VH, Ash JS, Casals J, 1978. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Thogoto, Dugbe, and Jos viruses isolated from ixodid ticks in Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27: 600604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    Tigoi C, Lwande O, Orindi B, Irura Z, Ongus J, Sang R, 2015. Seroepidemiology of selected arboviruses in febrile patients visiting selected health facilities in the lake/river basin areas of lake Baringo, lake Naivasha, and Tana River, Kenya. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 15: 124132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    Morrill JC, Johnson BK, Hyams C, Okoth F, Tukei PM, Mugambi M, Woody J, 1991. Serological evidence of arboviral infections among humans of coastal Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 94: 166168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137.

    Johnson BK, Ocheng D, Gichogo A, Okiro M, Libondo D, Tukei PM, Ho M, Mugambi M, Timms GL, French M, 1983. Antibodies against haemorrhagic fever viruses in Kenya populations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77: 731733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138.

    Čumakov MP, Smirnova SE, 1972. Obnaruženie antitel k virusu krymskoj gemorragičekoj lihoradki v syvortkah krovi dikih i domašnih životnyh iz Irana i Afriki. Čumakov MP, ed. Aktual’nye Problemy Virusologii I Profilaktiki Virusnyh Zabolevanij - Tezisy XVII Naučnoj Sessii Instituta, Posvâŝënnoj Aktual’nym Problemam Virusologii I Profilaktiki Virusnyh Zabolevanij. Moscow, USSR: Akademii medicinskih nauk SSSR, Institut poliomielita i virusnyh èncefalitov, 367368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    Sang R 2011. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in hyalommid ticks, northeastern Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 15021505.

  • 140.

    Mathiot CC, Fontenille D, Georges AJ, Coulanges P, 1989. Antibodies to haemorrhagic fever viruses in Madagascar populations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 407409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141.

    Andriamandimby SF, Marianneau P, Rafisandratantsoa JT, Rollin PE, Heraud JM, Tordo N, Reynes JM, 2011. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever serosurvey in at-risk professionals, Madagascar, 2008 and 2009. J Clin Virol 52: 370372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142.

    Uilenberg G, Hoogstraal H, Klein JM, 1979. Les tiques (Ixodoidea) de Madagascar et leur rôle vecteur. Tananarive, Madagascar: Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar Numéro Spécial, 1153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143.

    Mathiot CC, Fontenille D, Digoutte JP, Coulanges P, 1988. First isolation of Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus in Madagascar. Ann Inst Pasteur Virol 139: 239241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144.

    Berggren SA, 1978. Cattle ticks in Malawi. Vet Parasitol 4: 289297.

  • 145.

    Horak IG, Nyangiwe N, de Matos C, Neves L, 2009. Species composition and geographic distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in a temperate and in a subtropical region of south-east Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 76: 263276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146.

    Laughlin LW, Legters LJ, 1993. Disease threats in Somalia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: vix.

  • 147.

    Williams RJ, al-Busaidy S, Mehta FR, Maupin GO, Wagoner KD, al-Awaidy S, Suleiman AJM, Khan AS, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, 2000. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman. Trop Med Int Health 5: 99106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148.

    Khan AS 1997. An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates, 1994–1995. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 519525.

  • 149.

    Chisholm K, Dueger E, Fahmy NT, Samaha HA, Zayed A, Abdel-Dayem M, Villinski JT, 2012. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks from imported livestock, Egypt Emerg Infect Dis 18: 181182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150.

    Salih DA, Julla II, Hassan SM, el Hussein AM, Jongejan F, 2008. Reliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle in central Equatoria state, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75: 4753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151.

    Rodhain F, Gonzalez JP, Mercier E, Helynck B, Larouze B, Hannoun C, 1989. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 851854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152.

    Clements TL, Rossi CA, Irish AK, Kibuuka H, Eller LA, Robb ML, Kataaha P, Michael NL, Hensley LE, Schoepp RJ, 2019. Chikungunya and o’nyong-nyong viruses in Uganda: implications for diagnostics. Open Forum Infect Dis 6: ofz001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 153.

    Kirâ D, Semënov BF, Tret’âkov FI, Gromaševskij VL, Madžomba E, 1972. Predvaritel’noe soobŝenie ob issledovanii syvorotok životnyh iz vostočnoj Afriki na antitela k virusu Kongo metodom diffuzionnoj precipitacii v agare. Čumakov MP, ed. Aktual’nye Problemy Virusologii I Profilaktiki Virusnyh Zabolevanij - Tezisy XVII Naučnoj Sessii Instituta, Posvâŝënnoj Aktual’nym Problemam Virusologii I Profilaktiki Virusnyh Zabolevanij. Moscow, USSR: Akademii Medicinskih nauk SSSR, Institut Poliomielita i Virusnyh èncefalitov, 368369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154.

    Kaiser MN, Sutherst RW, Bourne AS, 1982. Relationship between ticks and Zebu cattle in southern Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 14: 6374.

  • 155.

    Kirâ D, 1972. Novye dannye o viruse Kongo v Vostočnoj Afrike: vydelenie virusa Kongo iz kleŝej Amblyomma variegatum. Čumakov MP, ed. Aktual’nye Problemy Virusologii I Profilaktiki Virusnyh Zabolevanij - Tezisy XVII Naučnoj Sessii Instituta, Posvâŝënnoj Aktual’nym Problemam Virusologii I Profilaktiki Virusnyh Zabolevanij. Moscow, USSR: Akademii Medicinskih nauk SSSR, Institut Poliomielita i Virusnyh èncefalitov, 348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156.

    Koehler JW, Delp KL, Kearney BJ, Conrad TA, Schoepp RJ, Garrison AR, Altimura LA, Rossi CA, Minogue TD, 2017. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Nairovirus Isolate UCCR4417 Segment M, Complete Sequence. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KY484045.1?report=genbank&to=5365. Accessed March 23, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 157.

    Yeoman GH, Walker JB, Ross JPJ, Docker TM, 1967. The Ixodid Ticks of Tanzania. A Study of the Zoogeography of the Ixodidae of an East African Country. London, UK: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 158.

    Blackburn NK, Searle L, Taylor P, 1982. Viral haemorrhagic fever antibodies in Zimbabwe schoolchildren. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76: 803805.

  • 159.

    Shepherd AJ, Swanepoel R, Shepherd SP, McGillivray GM, Searle LA, 1987. Antibody to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from Southern Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 133142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160.

    Gomes AF, Pombal AM Jr., Venturi L, 1994. Observations on cattle ticks in Huila province (Angola). Vet Parasitol 51: 333336.

  • 161.

    Gonzalez JP 1989. Antibody prevalence against haemorrhagic fever viruses in randomized representative central African populations. Res Virol 140: 319331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162.

    Sadeuh-Mba SA, Yonga Wansi GMY, Demanou M, Gessain A, Njouom R, 2018. Serological evidence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus infections among pygmies in the east region of Cameroon. Virol J 15: 63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 163.

    Sas MA, 2016. Novel Serological and Molecular Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infections and Their Application in Prevalence Studies on Sub-Saharan African Countries. DVM dissertation, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164.

    Saluzzo JF, Gonzalez JP, Hervé JP, Georges AJ, 1981. Enquête sérologique sur la prévalence de certains arbovirus dans la population humaine du sud-est de la République Centrafricaine en 1979. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 74: 490499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165.

    Meunier DMY, Johnson ED, Gonzalez JP, Georges-Courbot MC, Madelon MC, Georges AJ, 1987. Données sérologiques actuelles sur les fièvres hémorragiques virales en République centrafricaine. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 80: 5161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166.

    Mura A, Socolovschi C, Ginesta J, Lafrance B, Magnan S, Rolain JM, Davoust B, Raoult D, Parola P, 2008. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 945949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167.

    Sas MA, Mertens M, Kadiat JG, Schuster I, Pongombo CPS, Maloba AGK, Groschup MH, 2017. Serosurvey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infections in ruminants in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 8: 858861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168.

    Theiler G, 1962. The Ixodoidea parasites of vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara (Ethiopian region). Project S.9958-Report to the Director of Veterinary Services, Onderstepoort-June 1962. Onderstepoort, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa: Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 169.

    Elbl A, Anastos G, 1966. Ixodid ticks (Acarina, Ixodidae) of central Africa, volume IV. Genera Aponomma Neumann, 1899, Boophilus Curtice, 1891, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844, Hyalomma Koch, 1844 and Rhipicentor Nuttall and Warburton, 1908. Lists and bibliography. Annales - Serie in 8 - Sciences Zoologiques 148. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 170.

    Müller MA 2016. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses. Sci Rep 6: 26637.

  • 171.

    Yousfi-Monod R, Aeschlimann A, 1986. Recherches sur les tiques (Acarina, Ixodidae), parasites de bovidés dans l’Ouest algérien. I — inventaire systématique et dynamique saisonnière. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 61: 341358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172.

    Kautman M, Tiar G, Papa A, Široký P, 2016. AP92-like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis 22: 354356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 173.

    Darwish M, Imam IZE, Omar FM, Hoogstraal H, 1977. A seroepidemiological survey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in humans and domestic animals in Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc LII: 156163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174.

    Palomar AM, Portillo A, Santibáñez P, Mazuelas D, Arizaga J, Crespo A, Gutiérrez O, Cuadrado JF, Oteo JA, 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks from migratory birds, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 260263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 175.

    Watts DM, el-Tigani A, Botros BAM, Salib AW, Olson JG, McCarthy M, Ksiazek TG, 1994. Arthropod-borne viral infections associated with a fever outbreak in the northern province of Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg 97: 228230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176.

    Rahden P, Adam A, Mika A, Jassoy C, 2019. Elevated human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus seroprevalence in Khashm el Girba, Eastern Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 15491551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 177.

    Hassanein KM, el-Azazy OME, Yousef HM, 1997. Detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in humans and imported livestock in Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 536537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178.

    Adam IA, Mahmoud MAM, Aradaib IE, 2013. A seroepidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan. Virol J 10: 178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 179.

    Suliman HM, Adam IA, Saeed SI, Abdelaziz SA, Haroun EM, Aradaib IE, 2017. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan. Virol J 14: 147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 180.

    Ibrahim AM, Adam IA, Osman BT, Aradaib IE, 2015. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in east Darfur state, Sudan. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 6: 439444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 181.

    Chitimia-Dobler L 2019. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Hyalomma impeltatum ticks from north Kordofan, the Sudan. Int J Infect Dis 89: 8183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 182.

    Joubert JJ, van der Merwe CA, Lourens JH, Lecatsas G, Siegrühn C, 1991. Serological markers of hepatitis B virus and certain other viruses in the population of eastern Caprivi, Namibia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 101103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 183.

    Biggs HC, Langenhoven JW, 1984. Seasonal prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in the Windhoek district of south west Africa/Namibia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 51: 175182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 184.

    Swanepoel R, Struthers JK, Shepherd AJ, McGillivray GM, Nel MJ, Jupp PG, 1983. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in South Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 14071415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 185.

    Centers for Disease Control, 1981. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - South Africa. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 30: 349351.

  • 186.

    Swanepoel R, Shepherd AJ, Leman PA, Shepherd SP, 1985. Investigations following initial recognition of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in South Africa and the diagnosis of 2 further cases. S Afr Med J 68: 638641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 187.

    Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Swanepoel R, Van Middlekoop A, Harvey S, Kustner HG, 1992. Risk of human infections with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a South African rural community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 337345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 188.

    Vawda S, Goedhals D, Bester PA, Burt F, 2018. Seroepidemiologic survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in selected risk groups, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 24: 13601363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 189.

    Burt FJ, Spencer DC, Leman PA, Patterson B, Swanepoel R, 1996. Investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in South Africa and evidence of Dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged thrombocytopenia. Epidemiol Infect 116: 353361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 190.

    Shepherd AJ, Swanepoel R, Shepherd SP, Leman PA, Blackburn NK, Hallett AF, 1985. A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at Tygerberg Hospital. Part V. Virological and serological observations. S Afr Med J 68: 733736.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 191.

    Centers for Disease Control, 1984. Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever - Republic of South Africa. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 33: 535536, 541, 548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 192.

    Swanepoel R, Shepherd AJ, Leman PA, Shepherd SP, Miller GB, 1985. A common-source outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever on a dairy farm. S Afr Med J 68: 635637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 193.

    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2013. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever - South Africa (02): Background. ProMED archive number 20130116.1501273. Available at: https://promedmail.org/promed-post/?id=20130116.1501273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 194.

    Kemp A, Msimang V, Weyer J, Paweska J, 2014. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and tick-bite fever in South Africa, 2012–2014. Commun Dis Surv Bull 12: 5965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 195.

    Gonzalez JP, Baudon D, McCormick JB, 1984. Premières études sérologiques dans les populations humaines de Haut-Volta et du Benin sur les fièvres hémorragiques africaines d’origine virale. OCCGE Inform 12: 113116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 196.

    Abiola FA, Karimou M, Houeto P, 1991. Cholinesterase activity in bovine ticks and its inhibition in vitro by organophosphates acaricids. Rev Méd Vét (Toulouse) 142: 147152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 197.

    Digoutte JP, Saluzzo JF, Adam F, 1985. Données récentes sur les fièvres hémorragiques en Afrique de l'Ouest. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 78: 874878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 198.

    Kabore H, Salembere MS, Tamboura HH, 1998. Seasonal variation of ticks on cattle in Burkina Faso. Ann N Y Acad Sci 849: 398401.

  • 199.

    Biguezoton A, Adehan S, Adakal H, Zoungrana S, Farougou S, Chevillon C, 2016. Community structure, seasonal variations and interactions between native and invasive cattle tick species in Benin and Burkina Faso. Parasit Vectors 9: 43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 200.

    de Meira MTV, Ruffié J, de Sousa HT, 1957. Algumas carraças das ilhas de Cabo Verde. An Inst Med Trop (Lisb) 14: 425427.

  • 201.

    Knopf L, Komoin-Oka C, Betschart B, Jongejan F, Gottstein B, Zinsstag J, 2002. Seasonal epidemiology of ticks and aspects of cowdriosis in N'Dama village cattle in the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire. Prev Vet Med 53: 2130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 202.

    Boka OM, Achi L, Adakal H, Azokou A, Yao P, Yapi YG, Kone M, Dagnogo K, Kaboret YY, 2017. Review of cattle ticks (Acari, Ixodida) in ivory coast and geographic distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an emerging tick in West Africa. Exp Appl Acarol 71: 355369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 203.

    Claxton J, Leperre P, 1991. Parasite burdens and host susceptibility of Zebu and N’Dama cattle in village herds in Gambia. Vet Parasitol 40: 293304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 204.

    Ammah-Attoh V, 1966. Reproduction in the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch, 1844 under laboratory conditions, with notes on mating and insemination. Ghana J Sci 6: 914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 205.

    Tomassone L, Camicas JL, Pagani P, Diallo OT, Mannelli A, De Meneghi D, 2004. Monthly dynamics of ticks (Acari:Ixodida) infesting N'Dama cattle in the Republic of Guinea. Exp Appl Acarol 32: 209218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 206.

    Mediannikov O, Diatta G, Zolia Y, Balde MC, Kohar H, Trape JF, Raoult D, 2012. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 3: 4348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 207.

    Butenko AM, 1996. Izučenie cirkulâcii arbovirusov v Gvinejskoj Respublike. Med Parazitol (Mosk)) 2: 4045.

  • 208.

    van der Waals FW, Pomeroy KL, Goudsmit J, Asher DM, Gajdusek DC, 1986. Hemorrhagic fever virus infections in an isolated rainforest area of central Liberia. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence slide test for antibody screening in Africa. Trop Geogr Med 38: 209214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 209.

    Traoré A, Dao S, Jouanelle J, Bougoudogo F, Toure Y, Maiga K, 2005. A propos des premières observations sérologiques de la fièvre hémorragique de Crimée Congo au Mali. Mali Méd XX: 5253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 210.

    Maiga O 2017. Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle, Mali, west Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 13411345.

  • 211.

    Teel PD, Bay DE, Ajidagba PA, 1988. Ecology, distribution and host relationships of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting livestock in Mali. Bull Entomol Res 78: 407424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 212.

    Diarra AZ, Almeras L, Laroche M, Berenger JM, Koné AK, Bocoum Z, Dabo A, Doumbo O, Raoult D, Parola P, 2017. Molecular and MALDI-TOF identification of ticks and tick-associated bacteria in Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 213.

    Zivcec M, Maïga O, Kelly A, Feldmann F, Sogoba N, Schwan TG, Feldmann H, Safronetz D, 2014. Unique strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Mali Emerg Infect Dis 20: 911913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 214.

    Saluzzo JF, Digoutte JP, Camicas JL, Chauvancy G, 1985. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley fever in south-eastern Mauritania. Lancet 1: 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 215.

    Saluzzo JF, Camicas JL, Chartier C, Martinez D, Digoutte JP, 1986. Le virus de la fièvre hémorragique de Crimée-Congo (CCHF) en Mauritanie. Cah ORSTOM Entomol Méd Parasit 24: 129137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 216.

    Lepers JP, Billon C, Pesce JL, Rollin PE, De Saint-Martin J, 1988. Etude sero-épidémiologique en Mauritanie (1985–1986): fréquence des tréponematoses, du virus de l’hepatite B, du virus VIH et des fièvres hemorragiques virales. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 81: 2431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 217.

    Faye O 2006. Successive outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers (CCHF and RVF) in Mauritania, 2003. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 192.

  • 218.

    Rollin PE, Lepers JP, Rodhain F, Coudrier D, Sureau P, 1987. Viral haemorrhagic fever seroepidemiology in Mauritania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81: 520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 219.

    Mariner JC, Morrill J, Ksiazek TG, 1995. Antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses in domestic livestock in Niger: Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 217221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 220.

    Bloch N, Diallo I, 1991. Enquête sérologique chez les petits ruminants dans quatre départements du Niger. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 44: 397404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 221.

    Hoffmann G, Lindau M, 1971. Zecken an Nutz- und Wildtieren in Niger. Z für Angew Entomologie 69: 7282.

  • 222.

    Parola P, Inokuma H, Camicas JL, Brouqui P, Raoult D, 2001. Detection and identification of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in African ticks. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 10141017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 223.

    Tomori O, Fabiyi A, Sorungbe A, Smith A, McCormick JB, 1988. Viral hemorrhagic fever antibodies in Nigerian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38: 407410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 224.

    Bukbuk DN 2014. Development and validation of serological assays for viral hemorrhagic fevers and determination of the prevalence of Rift Valley fever in Borno state, Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 108: 768773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 225.

    Umoh JU, Ezeokoli CD, Ogwu D, 1983. Prevalence of antibodies to Crimean-haemorrhagic fever-Congo virus in cattle in northern Nigeria. Int J Zoonoses 10: 151154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 226.

    Oluwayelu D 2020. Prevalence of antibodies to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ruminants, Nigeria, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis 26: 744747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 227.

    Fabiyi A, 1978. Viral hemorrhagic fevers (Congo and Lassa) in Nigeria. Cherepanov AI, ed. Transcontinental Connections of Migratory Birds and Their Role in the Distribution of Arboviruses. Papers of a Symposium, July - August 1976. Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk Oblast, RSFSR, USSR: Nauka, 251255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 228.

    Lorusso V, Picozzi K, de Bronsvoort BMC, Majekodunmi A, Dongkum C, Balak G, Igweh A, Welburn SC, 2013. Ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central Nigeria: where Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?). Parasit Vectors 6: 171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 229.

    Sanchez AJ, Vincent MJ, Nichol ST, 2002. Characterization of the glycoproteins of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Virol 76: 72637275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 230.

    Wilson ML, Gonzalez JP, LeGuenno B, Cornet JP, Guillaud M, Calvo MA, Digoutte JP, Camicas JL, 1990. Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Senegal: temporal and spatial patterns. Calisher CH, ed. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Tick- and Mosquito-Borne Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplementum, vol. 1. Vienna, Austria: Springer, 323340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 231.

    Chapman LE, Wilson ML, Hall DB, LeGuenno B, Dykstra EA, Ba K, Fisher-Hoch SP, 1991. Risk factors for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in rural northern Senegal. J Infect Dis 164: 686692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 232.

    Sylla PM, Molez JF, Cornet JP, Camicas JL, Pourrut X, 2008. Variabilité climatique et répartition de la fièvre hémorragique de Crimée Congo et de la cowdriose, maladies à tiques au Sénégal. Acarologia XLVIII: 155161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 233.

    Wilson ML, LeGuenno B, Guillaud M, Desoutter D, Gonzalez JP, Camicas JL, 1990. Distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viral antibody in Senegal: environmental and vectorial correlates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 557566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 234.

    Čunihin SP, Čumakov MP, Butenko AM, Smirnova SE, Tofflib R, Kamikas ŽL, Roben I, Kornet M, Šabon Ž, 1969. Rezul’taty obsledovaniâ na antitela k virusu krymskoj gemorragičeskoj lihoradki syvorotok krovi lûdej, domašnih i dikih životnyh v respublike Senegal (Zapadnaâ Afrika). Čumakov MP, ed. Arbovirusy (Kleŝevoj I Âponskij Èncefality, Gemorragičeskie Lihoradki I Drugie Arbovirusnye Infektsii). Materialy HVI Naučnoj Sessii Instituta Poliomielita I Virusnyh Entsefalitov SSSR. Moscow, USSR: Akademii medicinskih nauk SSSR, Institut poliomielita i virusnyh èncefalitov, 158160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 235.

    Zeller HG, Cornet JP, Diop A, Camicas JL, 1997. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and ruminants: field observations of an epizootic in Bandia, Senegal (1989–1992). J Med Entomol 34: 511516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 236.

    Zeller HG, Cornet JP, Camicas JL, 1994. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal. Res Virol 145: 105109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 237.

    Robin Y, Camicas JL, Jan C, Heme G, Cornet M, Valade M, 1978. Ecology of tick arboviruses in arid areas of Senegal. Transcontinental Connections of Migratory Birds and Their Role in the Distribution of Arboviruses. Papers of a Symposium, July–August 1976. Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk Oblast, RSFSR, USSR: Nauka, Siberian Branch, 209211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 238.

    Mangombi JB, Roqueplo C, Sambou M, Dahmani M, Mediannikov O, Comtet L, Davoust B, 2020. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in domesticated animals in northwestern Senegal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 20: 797799.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 239.

    Morel PC, 1958. Les tiques des animaux domestiques de l'afrique occidentale française. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 11: 153189.

  • 240.

    Sambou M, Faye N, Bassène H, Diatta G, Raoult D, Mediannikov O, 2014. Identification of rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks in northern Senegal. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5: 552556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 241.

    Camicas JL, Robin Y, le Gonidec G, Saluzzo JF, Jouan A, Cornet JP, Chauvancy G, Ba K, 1986. Etude écologique et nosologique des arbovirus transmis par les tiques au Sénégal. 3. Les vecteurs potentiels du virus de la fièvre hémorragique de Crimée-Congo (virus CCHF) au Sénégal et en Mauritanie. Cah ORSTOM Entomol Méd Parasit 24: 255264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 242.

    Cornet JP, Zeller H, Camicas JL, 1995. Contribution à l'étude des tiques (Acarina: Ixodina) vectrices du virus de la fièvre hémorragique Crimée-Congo (CCHF) au Sénégal. 2-biologie, aux stases préimaginales, de Hyalomma marginatum rufipes. Acarologia XXXVI: 293295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 243.

    Camicas JL, Wilson ML, Cornet JP, Digoutte JP, Calvo MA, Adam F, Gonzalez JP, 1990. Ecology of ticks as potential vectors of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Senegal: epidemiological implications. Calisher CH, ed. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Tick- and Mosquito-Borne Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplementum, vol. 1. Vienna, Austria: Springer, 303322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 244.

    Cornet JP, YS, K, Chauvancy G, Zeller H, 1997. Contribution à l'étude des tiques (Acarina: Ixodida) vectrices du virus de la fièvre hémorragique Crimée-Congo (CCHF), au Sénégal. 5-Etude biologique et virologique de la faune ixodidienne des terriers. Acarologia XXXVIII: 4345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 245.

    O’Hearn AE, Voorhees MA, Fetterer DP, Wauquier N, Coomber MR, Bangura J, Fair JN, Gonzalez JP, Schoepp RJ, 2016. Serosurveillance of viral pathogens circulating in west Africa. Virol J 13: 163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 246.

    Kulo AE, Assogba K, Talaki E, Poutouli W, 2012. Répartition spatiale des tiques (Ixodidae) sur un pâturage cultive à La station expérimentale agronomique de l’Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie - campus Universitaire de Lomé au Togo. Livestock Res Rural Dev 24: 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Africa—Underestimated for Decades

View More View Less
  • 1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland;
  • 2 Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey;
  • 3 Integrated Research Facility, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland;
  • 4 Department of Entomology, Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, Maryland;
  • 5 Department of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland;
  • 6 US National Tick Collection, The James H. Oliver Jr. Institute for Coastal Plain Science, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia