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Human trichinellosis can be diagnosed by a combination of medical history, clinical presentation, and laboratory findings, and through detection of anti–Trichinella IgG in the patient’s sera. ELISA using excretory–secretory (E/S) antigens of Trichinella spiralis larvae is currently the most used assay to detect Trichinella spp. antibodies. Bead-based assay can detect antibodies to multiple antigens concurrently; the ability to detect antibody to T. spiralis using a bead assay could be useful for diagnosis and surveillance. We developed and evaluated a bead assay to detect and quantify total IgG or IgG4 Trichinella spp. antibodies in human serum using T. spiralis E/S antigens. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined using serum from 110 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of trichinellosis, 140 subjects with confirmed infections with other tissue-dwelling parasites, 98 human serum samples from residents of the United States with no known history of parasitic infection, and nine human serum samples from residents of Egypt with negative microscopy for intestinal parasites. Sensitivity and specificity were 93.6% and 94.3% for total IgG and 89.2% and 99.2% for IgG4, respectively. Twelve percent of sera from patients with confirmed schistosomiasis reacted with the IgG Trichinella bead assay, as did 11% of sera from patients with neurocysticercosis. The Trichinella spp. bead assay to detect IgG total antibody responses has a similar performance as the Trichinella E/S ELISA. The Trichinella spp. bead assay shows promise as a method to detect trichinellosis with a possibility to be used in multiplex applications.
Authors' addresses: Ruth Kahsay, Emory College, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Maria A. Gómez-Morales and Edoardo Pozio, Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Hilda B. Rivera, Isabel McAuliffe, and Sukwan Handali, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org.