• 1.

    Powers AM, Brault AC, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, 2000. Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O’nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. J Gen Virol 81: 471479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Rezza G, Chen R, Weaver SC, 2017. O’nyong-nyong fever: a neglected mosquito-borne viral disease. Pathog Glob Health 111: 271275.

  • 3.

    Williams MC, Woodall JP, 1961. O’nyong-nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa. II. Isolation and some properties of the virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 55: 135141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Shore H, 1961. O’nyong-nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa: III. Some clinical and epidemiological observations in the Northern province of Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 55: 361373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Haddow AJ, Davies CW, Walker AJ, 1960. O’nyong-nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa 1. Introduction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 54: 517522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sanders EJ et al. 1999. O’nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996–1997: description of the epidemic and results of a household-based seroprevalence survey. J Infect Dis 180: 14361443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Kiwanuka N et al. 1999. O’nyong-nyong fever in south-central Uganda, 1996–1997: clinical features and validation of a clinical case definition for surveillance purposes. Clin Infect Dis 29: 12431250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Rwaguma EB, Lutwama JJ, Sempala SD, Kiwanuka N, Kamugisha J, Okware S, Bagambisa G, Lanciotti R, Roehrig JT, Gubler DJ, 1997. Emergence of epidemic O’nyong-nyong fever in southwestern Uganda, after an absence of 35 years. Emerg Infect Dis 3: 77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Powers AM, 2013. Chapter 23: Infection Patterns and Emergence of O'nyong'nyong Virus in Viral Infections and Global Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • 10.

    LaBeaud AD et al. 2015. High rates of O’nyong nyong and Chikungunya virus transmission in coastal Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003436.

  • 11.

    Tappe D, Kapaun A, Emmerich P, de Mendonca Campos R, Cadar D, Gunther S, Schmidt-Chanasit J, 2014. O’nyong-nyong virus infection imported to Europe from Kenya by a traveler. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 17661767.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Waggoner J, Heath CJ, Ndenga B, Mutuku F, Sahoo MK, Mohamed-Hadley A, Vulule J, Mukoko D, LaBeaud AD, Pinsky BA, 2017. Development of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for O’nyong-nyong virus and evaluation with clinical and mosquito specimens from Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97: 121124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hortion J, Mutuku FM, Eyherabide AL, Vu DM, Boothroyd DB, Grossi-Soyster EN, King CH, Ndenga BA, LaBeaud AD, 2019. Acute flavivirus and alphavirus infections among children in two different areas of Kenya, 2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 170173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Vu DM, Mutai N, Heath CJ, Vulule JM, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, LaBeaud AD, 2017. Unrecognized dengue virus infections in children, western Kenya, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis 23: 19151917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Harris PA, Taylor R, Thielke R, Payne J, Gonzalez N, Conde JG, 2009. Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomedical Informatics 42: 377381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Bessaud M, Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino BA, Gravier P, Tock F, Boete F, Tolou HJ, Grandadam M, 2006. O’nyong-nyong virus, Chad. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 1248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Posey DL, O’rourke T, Roehrig JT, Lanciotti RS, Weinberg M, Maloney S, 2005. O’nyong-nyong fever in West Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 32.

  • 18.

    Johnson B, Gichogo A, Gitau G, Patel N, Ademba G, Kirui R, Highton R, Smith D, 1981. Recovery of O’nyong-nyong virus from Anopheles funestus in Western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75: 239241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Johnson B, Chanas A, Shockley P, Squires E, Gardner P, Wallace C, Simpson D, Bowen E, Platt G, Way H, 1977. Arbovirus isolations from, and serological studies on, wild and domestic vertebrates from Kano Plain, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 71: 512517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Olaleye O, Omilabu S, Fagbami A, 1988. Igbo-Ora virus (an alphavirus isolated in Nigeria): a serological survey for haemagglutination inhibiting antibody in humans and domestic animals. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 905906.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No Evidence of O’nyong-nyong Viremia among Children with Febrile Illness in Kenya (2015–2018)

View More View Less
  • 1 Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California;
  • | 2 Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya;
  • | 3 Department of Environment and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya;
  • | 4 Msambweni County Referral Hospital, Msambweni, Kenya;
  • | 5 Diani Health Center, Ukunda, Kenya;
  • | 6 Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California;
  • | 7 Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

ABSTRACT

O’nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) is a little-known arbovirus causing intermittent, yet explosive, outbreaks in Africa. It is closely related to chikungunya virus, an emerging infectious disease. O’nyong-nyong virus causes a self-limited illness characterized by bilateral polyarthritis, rash, low-grade fever, and lymphadenopathy. In 1959, an extensive outbreak of ONNV occurred in East Africa, and decades later, another large outbreak was documented in Uganda in 1996. Limited evidence for interepidemic transmission is available, although serologic studies indicate a high prevalence of exposure. 1,045 febrile child participants in western and coastal Kenya were tested for the presence of ONNV using a multiplexed real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR assay. More than half of the participants had malaria parasitemia, and there was no evidence of active ONNV viremia in these participants. Further work is required to better understand the interepidemic circulation of ONNV and to reconcile evidence of high serologic exposure to ONNV among individuals in East Africa.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Melisa M. Shah, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr., Lane 134, Stanford, CA 94305. E-mail: melisa.shah@gmail.com

Authors’ addresses: Melisa M. Shah, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mail: melisa.shah@gmail.com. Bryson A. Ndenga, Victoria Okuta, and Charles O. Ronga, Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya, E-mails: bndenga@yahoo.com, victoriaokuta7@gmail.com, and rongacharles@yahoo.com. Francis M. Mutuku, Department of Environment and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya, E-mail: fmutuku73@gmail.com. Philip K. Chebii and Priscilla Maina, Msambweni County Referral Hospital, Msambweni, Kwale County, Kenya, E-mails: chebiik@yahoo.com and pirimaina@gmail.com. Zainab Jembe, Diani Health Center, Ukunda, Kwale County, Kenya, E-mail: zainabjembe@gmail.com. Malaya K. Sahoo, ChunHong Huang, and Jenna Weber, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mails: mksahoo@stanford.edu, chhuang@stanford.edu, and jmicweber@gmail.com. Benjamin A. Pinsky, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mail: bpinsky@stanford.edu. Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Department of Pediatrics Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mail: dlabeaud@stanford.edu.

Save