• 1.

    Bundy DAP, de Silva N, Horton S, Jamison DT, Patton GC, 2017. Disease control priorities. Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 3rd edition, Vol. 8. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    World Bank, 2019. Human Capital Project. Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/human-capital. Accessed June 29, 2020.

  • 3.

    WFP, 2013. World Food Program: State of School Feeding Worldwide. Available at: https://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp257481.pdf. Accessed June 24, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Kristjansson EA 2007. School feeding for improving the physical and psychosocial health of disadvantaged students. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 110: 18301839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Gelli A 2019. A school meals program implemented at scale in Ghana increases height-for-age during midchildhood in girls and in children from poor households: a cluster randomized trial. J Nutr 149: 14341442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Aurino E, Gelli A, Adamba C, Osei-Akoto I, Alderman H, 2018. Food for Thought? Experimental Evidence on the Learning Impacts of a Large-Scale School Feeding Program in Ghana. Available at: http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/133027/filename/133239.pdf. Accessed June 24, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    World Food Programme, 2020. A Chance for Every Schoolchild Partnering to Scale up School Health and Nutrition for Human Capital. Available at: https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000112101/download/?_ga=2.136334070.738803297.1586422553-155086108.1581420059. Accessed April 9, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Aliyar R, Gelli A, Hamdani SH, 2015. A review of nutritional guidelines and menu compositions for school feeding programs in 12 countries. Front Public Heal 3: 148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Fernandes M 2016. Enhancing linkages between healthy diets, local agriculture, and sustainable food systems: the school meals planner package in Ghana. Food Nutr Bull 37: 571584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gelli A, Margolies A, Santacroce M, Roschnik N, Twalibu A, Katundu M, Moestue H, Alderman H, Ruel M, 2018. Using a community-based early childhood development center as a platform to promote production and consumption diversity increases children’s dietary intake and reduces stunting in Malawi: a cluster-randomized trial. J Nutr 148: 15871597.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    World Health Organization, 2012. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases: Eliminating as Public Health Problem Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases in Children: Progress Report 2001–2010 and Strategic Plan 2011–2020. Available at: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44804. Accessed June 16, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    World Health Organization, 2018, Schistosomiasis and soiltransmitted helminthiases: numbers of people treated in 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 93: 681692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Tielsch JM, Schulze KJ, Albonico M, Savioli L, 1997. Epidemiology of iron deficiency anemia in Zanzibari schoolchildren: the importance of hookworms. Am J Clin Nutr 65: 153159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Bustinduy AL, Parraga IM, Thomas CL, Mungai PL, Mutuku F, Muchiri EM, Kitron U, King CH, 2013. Impact of polyparasitic infections on anemia and undernutrition among Kenyan children living in a schistosoma haematobium-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 433440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pabalan N, Singian E, Tabangay L, Jarjanazi H, Boivin MJ, Ezeamama AE, 2018. Soil-transmitted helminth infection, loss of education and cognitive impairment in school-aged children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12: e0005523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Baird S, Hicks JH, Kremer M, Miguel E, 2016. Worms at work: long-run impacts of a child health investment. Q J Econ 131: 16371680.

  • 17.

    Rastogi A, 2020. National Deworming Day, National Health Portal Of India. Available at: https://www.nhp.gov.in/national-deworming-day_pg. Accessed June 24, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2019. Impact Dashboard for Preventive Chemotherapy (PC) Diseases. Available at: https://unitingtocombatntds.org/impact-dashboards/pc-diseases-dashboard/. Accessed June 24, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Torres-Rueda S, Rulisa S, Burchett HED, Mivumbi NV, Mounier-Jack S, 2016. HPV vaccine introduction in Rwanda: impacts on the broader health system. Sex Reprod Healthc 7: 4651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Black E, Richmond R, 2018. Prevention of cervical cancer in sub-saharan Africa: the advantages and challenges of HPV vaccination. Vaccines 6: 61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A, 2018. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 68: 394424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Brisson M 2020. Impact of HPV vaccination and cervical screening on cervical cancer elimination: a comparative modelling analysis in 78 low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Lancet 395: 575590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    World Health Organization, UNICEF, 2020. Progress and Challenges with Achieving Universal Immunization Coverage. Available at: https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/who-immuniz.pdf?ua=1. Accessed August 17, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Walldorf JA 2015. School-age children are a reservoir of malaria infection in Malawi. PLoS One 10: e0134061.

  • 25.

    Yeka A, Nankabirwa J, Mpimbaza A, Kigozi R, Arinaitwe E, Drakeley C, Greenhouse B, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Staedke SG, 2015. Factors associated with malaria parasitemia, anemia and serological responses in a spectrum of epidemiological settings in Uganda. PLoS One 10: e0118901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Pinchoff J, Chaponda M, Shields TM, Sichivula J, Muleba M, Mulenga M, Kobayashi T, Curriero FC, Moss WJ, 2016. Southern Africa international centers of excellence for malaria research. Individual and household level risk factors associated with malaria in nchelenge district, a region with perennial transmission: a serial cross-sectional study from 2012 to 2015. PLoS One 11: e0156717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Touré M 2016. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali. Malar J 15: 219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mwandagalirwa MK, Levitz L, Thwai KL, Parr JB, Goel V, Janko M, Tshefu A, Emch M, Meshnick SR, Carrel M, 2017. Individual and household characteristics of persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sites with varying endemicities in Kinshasa province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malar J 16: 456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Were V, Buff AM, Desai M, Kariuki S, Samuels A, ter Kuile FO, Phillips-Howard PA, Patrick Kachur S, Niessen L, 2018. Socioeconomic health inequality in malaria indicators in rural western Kenya: evidence from a household malaria survey on burden and care-seeking behaviour. Malar J 17: 166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Coalson JE, Cohee LM, Buchwald AG, Nyambalo A, Kubale J, Seydel KB, Mathanga D, Taylor TE, Laufer MK, Wilson ML, 2018. Simulation models predict that school-age children are responsible for most human-to-mosquito Plasmodium falciparum transmission in southern Malawi. Malar J 17: 166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Gonçalves BP 2017. Examining the human infectious reservoir for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity. Nat Commun 8: 1133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Brooker S, Clarke S, Fernando D, Gitonga C, Nankabirwa J, Schellenberg D, Greenwood B, 2017. Malaria in middle childhood and adolescence. Bundy D, de Silva N, Horton S, Jamison DT, Patton G, eds. Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, Vol. 8, Child and Adolescent Health and Development. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Clarke SE, Jukes MCH, Njagi JK, Khasakhala L, Cundill B, Otido J, Crudder C, Estambale BBA, Brooker S, 2008. Effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on health and education in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 372: 127138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Nankabirwa J, Wandera B, Kiwanuka N, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Brooker SJ, 2013. Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and cognition among primary schoolchildren in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 11021108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Montgomery P, Ryus CR, Dolan CS, Dopson S, Scott LM, 2012. Sanitary pad interventions for girls’ education in Ghana: a pilot study. PLoS One 7: e48274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Kansiime C 2020. Menstrual health intervention and school attendance in Uganda (MENISCUS-2): a pilot intervention study. BMJ Open 10: e031182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    School Health Integrated Programming, 2016. Guidelines ForSchool-Based Deworming Programs. Information for Policy-Makers and Planners on Conducting Deworming as Part of an Integrated School Health Program. Available at: https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/guidelines-school-based-deworming-programs-information-policy-makers-and-planners-conducting. Accessed June 24, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Gallagher KE, Erio T, Baisley K, Lees S, Watson-Jones D, 2018. The impact of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination campaign on routine primary health service provision and health workers in Tanzania: a controlled before and after study. BMC Health Serv Res 18: 173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Onyango-Ouma W, Aagaard-Hansen J, Jensen BB, 2005. The potential of schoolchildren as health change agents in rural western Kenya. Soc Sci Med 61: 17111722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Ayi I, Nonaka D, Adjovu JK, Hanafusa S, Jimba M, Bosompem KM, Mizoue T, Takeuchi T, Boakye DA, Kobayashi J, 2010. School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers. Malar J 9: 98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Milakovich J, Simonds VW, Held S, Picket V, LaVeaux D, Cummins J, Martin C, Kelting-Gibson L, 2018. Children as agents of change: parent perceptions of child-driven environmental health communication in the crow community. J Health Dispar Res Pract 11: 115127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Mosavel M, Genderson MW, 2016. Daughter-initiated cancer screening appeals to mothers. J Cancer Educ 31: 767775.

 

 

 

 

 

The Role of Health in Education and Human Capital: Why an Integrated Approach to School Health Could Make a Difference in the Futures of Schoolchildren in Low-Income Countries

View More View Less
  • 1 Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland;
  • 2 Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom;
  • 3 International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia;
  • 4 Uganda Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda;
  • 5 World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia;
  • 6 United Nations World Food Program, Rome, Italy;
  • 7 Partnership for Childhood Development, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT

Healthy students learn better, yet most current investments in schoolchildren focus on education and learning while largely neglecting the health of the learner. Some school-based interventions, such as school feeding and deworming, are already successfully targeted at this age-group, but the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of such programs could be greatly enhanced by better integrated delivery alongside other priority health interventions. A symposium at the society’s 68th annual meeting launched a process to explore how integrated delivery of school-based interventions can address prevalent health conditions in school-age children.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Lauren M. Cohee, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, HSF II, Rm. 480, 685 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201. E-mail: lcohee@som.umaryland.edu

Financial support: L. M. C is supported by NIH Career Development Award K23AI135076. The ASTMH Scientific Program Committee graciously supported IM’s travel to and attendance at the annual meeting.

Authors’ addresses: Lauren M. Cohee, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, E-mail: lcohee@som.umaryland.edu. Katherine E. Halliday and Donald A. P. Bundy, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, E-mails: katherine.halliday@lshtm.ac.uk and donald.bundy@lshtm.ac.uk. Aulo Gelli, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, E-mail: a.gelli@cgiar.org. Irene Mwenyango, Uganda Ministry of Health, E-mail: mwenyangoi@yahoo.com. Fernando Lavadenz, World Bank, Washington, DC, E-mail: flavadenz@worldbank.org. Carmen Burbano, United Nations World Food Program, Rome, Italy, E-mail: carmen.burbano@wfp.org. Lesley Drake, Partnership for Childhood Development and Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, E-mail: schoolhealth@imperial.ac.uk.

Save