• 1.

    Casals J, 1964. Antigenic variants of eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Exp Med 119: 547565.

  • 2.

    Brault AC, Shope RE, Lopez RN, Weaver SC, Tesh RB, Kang W, Chavez CL, Gutierrez LF, Cachón MF, Powers AM, 1999. Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 579586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Van Regenmortel MHV et al. 2000. Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses .Van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Weaver SC, Powers AM, Brault AC, Barrett AD, 1999. Molecular epidemiological studies of veterinary arboviral encephalitides. Vet J 157: 123138.

  • 5.

    Scott TW, Weaver SC, 1989. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus: epidemiology and evolution of mosquito transmission. Adv Virus Res 37: 277328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Carrera J-P et al. 2013. Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America. N Engl J Med 369: 732744.

  • 7.

    Arrigo NC, Adams AP, Weaver SC, 2010. Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision. J Virol 84: 10141025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Sabattini MS, Monath TP, Mitchell CJ, Daffner JF, Bowen GS, Pauli R, Contigiani MS, 1985. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977–1980. I. Historical aspects and description of study sites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 937944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Sabattini MS, Avilés G, Monath TP, 1998. Historical, epidemiological and ecological aspects of arboviruses in Argentina: Togaviridae, Alphavirus. Travassos da Rosa A.P.A, Vasconcelos P.F.C, Travassos da Rosa J.F.S, eds. Overview of Arbovirology in Brazil and Neighbouring Countries. Belém, Brazil: Instituto Evandro Chagas, 135152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Monath TP, Sabattini MS, Pauli R, Daffner JF, Mitchell CJ, Bowen GS, 1985. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977–1980. IV. Serologic surveys and sentinel equine program. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 966975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sabattini MS, Daffner JF, Monath TP, Bianchi TI, Cropp CB, Mitchell CJ, Aviles G, 1991. Localized eastern equine encephalitis in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina, without human infection. Medicina (B Aires) 51: 38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sánchez-Seco MP, Rosario D, Quiroz E, Guzmán G, Tenorio A, 2001. A generic nested-RT-PCR followed by sequencing for detection and identification of members of the Alphavirus genus. J Virol Methods 95: 153161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kumar S, Stecher G, Li M, Knyaz C, Tamura K, 2018. MEGA X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Mol Biol Evol 35: 15471549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Nguyen L-T, Schmidt HA, von Haeseler A, Minh BQ, 2015. IQ-tree: a fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum-likelihood phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol 32: 268274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D, 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat Methods 9: 772772.

  • 16.

    Vittor AY et al. 2016. Epidemiology of emergent madariaga encephalitis in a region with endemic venezuelan equine encephalitis : initial host studies and human cross-sectional study in Darien, Panama. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Arrigo NC, Paige Adams A, Watts DM, Newman PC, Weaver SC, 2010. Cotton rats and house sparrows as hosts for North and South American strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 13731380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Rossi GC, 2015. Annotated checklist, distribution, and taxonomic bibliography of the mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) of Argentina. Check List 11: 115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Molaei G, Huang S, Andreadis TG, 2012. Vector-host interactions of Culex pipiens complex in northeastern and southwestern USA. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 28: 127136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Stein M, Zalazar L, Willener JA, Almeida FL, Almirón WR, Stein M, Zalazar L, Willener JA, Almeida FL, Almirón WR, 2013. Culicidae (Diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: 563571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

First Detection of Madariaga virus in Mosquitoes Collected in a Wild Environment of Northeastern Argentina

View More View Less
  • 1 Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Chaco, Argentina;
  • | 2 Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina;
  • | 3 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina;
  • | 4 Cátedra de Virología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina;
  • | 5 Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Virología “Dr. J.M. Vanella,” Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina
Restricted access

Madariaga virus (MADV), previously known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus (SA EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), is a mosquito-borne virus associated mainly with equine disease. In 2010, the first human outbreak by MADV was reported in Central America, but the mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts involved in the outbreak were not identified. In Argentina, the first epizootic of MADV was in 1930, and since then, several epizootics by MADV have been reported. However, the potential vectors and hosts involved in the transmission cycle remain unknown. In the present study, MADV was detected in Culex (Culex) spp. mosquitoes and the phylogenetic analysis showed that the MADV fragment amplified grouped with the lineage/subtype III of the SA EEEV complex. Our results provide information about the natural infection with MADV in mosquitoes collected in a wild environment of Argentina and its genetic relatedness.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Ornela Sofia Stechina, Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Las Heras 727, Chaco 3500, Argentina. E-mail: ornela_ss@hotmail.com

Financial support: This work was supported by PICTO-2011-0246 from Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCYT) and Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Argentina.

Authors’ addresses: Ornela Sofia Stechina and Marina Stein, Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Chaco, Argentina, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina, E-mails: ornela_ss@hotmail.com and marinastein66@gmail.com. Griselda Inés Oria, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina and Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Instituto de Medicina Regional, Laboratorio de Entomología, Chaco, Argentina, E-mail: grisior@gmail.com. Carolina Torres, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Cátedra de Virología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, E-mail: ctorres@ffyb.uba.ar. Luis Adrián Diaz, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Virología “Dr. J.M. Vanella,” Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, and Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba–CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina, E-mail: ladriandiaz@gmail.com. Marta Contigiani, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Virología “Dr. J.M. Vanella,” Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, E-mail: martascontigia@hotmail.com.

Save