Tuboi SH, Costa ZGA, da Costa Vasconcelos PF, Hatch D, 2007. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of yellow fever in Brazil: analysis of reported cases 1998–2002. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 169–175.
Monath TP, Vasconcelos PFC, 2015. Yellow fever. J Clin Virol 64: 160–173.
Monath TP, 2008. Treatment of yellow fever. Antiviral Res 78: 116–124.
Klitting R, Fischer C, Drexler JF, Gould EA, Roiz D, Paupy C, de Lamballerie X, 2018. What does the future hold for yellow fever virus? (II). Genes (Basel) 425.
Domingo C, Patel P, Yillah J, Weidmann M, Méndez JA, Nakouné ER, Niedriga M, 2012. Advanced yellow fever virus genome detection in point-of-care facilities and reference laboratories. J Clin Microbiol 50: 4054–4060.
Martin DA, Muth DA, Brown T, Johnson AJ, Karabatsos N, Roehrig JT, 2000. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol 38: 1823–1826.
Karvellas CJ, Subramanian RM, 2016. Current evidence for extracorporeal liver support systems in acute liver failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Crit Care Clin 32: 439–451.
Larsen FS et al. 2016. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure: an open randomised controlled trial. J Hepatol 64: 69–78.
van de Weg CA et al. 2014. Hyperferritinaemia in dengue virus infected patients is associated with immune activation and coagulation disturbances. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3214.
McElroy AK et al. 2019. Macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 associated with fatal and severe Ebola virus disease in humans. Emerg Infect Dis 25: 290–298.
Kernan KF, Carcillo JA, 2017. Hyperferritinemia and inflammation. Int Immunol 29: 401–409.
Quaresma JA, Barros VL, Pagliari C, Fernandes ER, Andrade HF, Vasconcelos PF, Duarte MI, 2007. Hepatocyte lesions and cellular immune response in yellow fever infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 161–168.
Quaresma JA, Barros VL, Pagliari C, Fernandes ER, Guedes F, Takakura CF, Andrade HF, Vasconcelos PF, Duarte MI, 2006. Revisiting the liver in human yellow fever: virus-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes associated with TGF-β, TNF-α and NK cells activity. Virology 345: 22–30.
Quaresma JA, Lima LW, Fuzii HT, Libonati RM, Pagliari C, Duarte MI, 2010. Immunohistochemical evaluation of macrophage activity and its relationship with apoptotic cell death in the polar forms of leprosy. Microb Pathog 49: 135–140.
Engelmann F et al. 2014. Pathophysiologic and transcriptomic analyses of viscerotropic yellow fever in a rhesus macaque model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3295.
Wamala JF et al. 2012. Epidemiological and laboratory characterization of a yellow fever outbreak in northern Uganda, October 2010–January 2011. Int J Infect Dis 16: e536–e542.
Basler CF, 2017. Molecular pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fever. Semin Immunopathol 39: 551–561.
Monath TP, Brinker KR, Chandler FW, Kemp GE, Cropp CB, 1981. Pathophysiologic correlations in a rhesus monkey model of yellow fever with special observations on the acute necrosis of B cell areas of lymphoid tissues. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30: 431–443.
Demirkol D et al. Turkish Secondary HLH/MAS Critical Care Study Group, 2012. Hyperferritinemia in the critically ill child with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/sepsis/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome/macrophage activation syndrome: what is the treatment? Crit Care 16: R52.
Rosário C, Zandman-Goddard G, Meyron-Holtz EG, D’Cruz DP, Shoenfeld Y, 2013. The hyperferritinemic syndrome: macrophage activation syndrome, Still’s disease, septic shock and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. BMC Med 11: 185.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||754||152||2|
A 43-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit and diagnosed with yellow fever. He presented with refractory bleeding, extreme hyperferritinemia, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, requiring renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and treatment with vasoactive drugs. Because the bleeding did not respond to fresh-frozen plasma administration, the patient received therapeutic plasma exchange, which was accompanied by a marked improvement of the clinical and biochemical parameters, including a significant decline in serum ferritin levels.
Authors’ addresses: Jaques Sztajnbok, Ceila Maria Sant’Ana Malaque, Camila Hitomi Nihei, Irene Faria Duayer, Zita Maria Leme Britto, Eduarda Gambini Beraldo, and Ralcyon Francis AzevedoTeixeira, Emílio Ribas Institute of Infectious Diseases, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org.