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Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Providencia alcalifaciens Infections

Mohammad Monir ShahNagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine-Kenya Medical Research Institute Project, Nairobi, Kenya;
Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Asia and Africa, Nagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki, Japan

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Erick OdoyoNagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine-Kenya Medical Research Institute Project, Nairobi, Kenya;

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Yoshio IchinoseNagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine-Kenya Medical Research Institute Project, Nairobi, Kenya;
Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Asia and Africa, Nagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki, Japan

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Providencia alcalifaciens is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that has been commonly implicated as a causative agent of diarrheal infection in humans and animals. Recent outbreaks of P. alcalifaciens in both developing and developed countries have raised public health concerns. Several studies have suggested that P. alcalifaciens can cause diarrhea by invading the intestinal mucosa, although its pathogenicity has not been well established. Often routine laboratory investigations that seek etiological agents of diarrhea do not actively pursue P. alcalifaciens detection. Therefore, routine laboratory diagnosis should be given more attention for better understanding the epidemiology and pathogenicity of P. alcalifaciens.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Mohammad Monir Shah, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Asia and Africa, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. E-mail: shah@nagasaki-u.ac.jp

Authors’ addresses: Mohammad Monir Shah and Yoshio Ichinose, Nagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine-Kenya Medical Research Institute Project, Nairobi, Kenya and Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Asia and Africa, Nagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki, Japan, E-mails: shah@nagasaki-u.ac.jp and ichinose@nagasaki-u.ac.jp. Erick Odoyo, Nagasaki University Institute of Tropical Medicine-Kenya Medical Research Institute Project, Nairobi, Kenya, E-mail: e.odoyo@gmail.com.

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