• 1.

    Kersh GJ et al. 2013. Presence and persistence of Coxiella burnetii in the environments of goat farms associated with a Q fever outbreak. Appl Environ Microbiol 79: 16971703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Brooke RJ, Kretzschmar ME, Mutters NT, Teunis PF, 2013. Human dose response relation for airborne exposure to Coxiella burnetii. BMC Infect Dis 13: 488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Amitai Z et al. 2010. A large Q fever outbreak in an urban school in central Israel. Clin Infect Dis 50: 14331438.

  • 4.

    D’Amato F, Million M, Edouard S, Delerce J, Robert C, Marrie T, Raoult D, 2014. Draft genome sequence of Coxiella burnetii Dog Utad, a strain isolated from a dog-related outbreak of Q fever. New Microbes New Infect 2: 136137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Komiya T, Sadamasu K, Toriniwa H, Kato K, Arashima Y, Fukushi H, Hirai K, Arakawa Y, 2003. Epidemiological survey on the route of Coxiella burnetii infection in an animal hospital. J Infect Chemother 9: 151155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Maurin M, Raoult D, 1999. Q fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 518553.

  • 7.

    Raoult D, Marrie T, Mege J, 2005. Natural history and pathophysiology of Q fever. Lancet Infect Dis 5: 219226.

  • 8.

    Almogren A, Shakoor Z, Hasanato R, Adam MH, 2013. Q fever: a neglected zoonosis in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 33: 464468.

  • 9.

    Ergas D, Abdul-Hai A, Sthoeger ZM, 2008. Acalculous cholecystitis: an unusual presentation of acute Q fever masquerading as infectious endocarditis. Am J Med Sci 336: 356357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Vest KG, Clark LL, 2014. Serosurvey and observational study of US army veterinary corps officers for Q fever antibodies from 1989 to 2008. Zoonoses Public Health 61: 271282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Obaidat MM, Kersh GJ, 2017. Prevalence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk milk from cattle, sheep, and goats in Jordan. J Food Prot 80: 561566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    World Bank, 2017. Jordan data. World Bank. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/country/jordan. Accessed January 8, 2019.

  • 13.

    Wegdam-Blans MC, Wielders CC, Meekelenkamp J, Korbeeck JM, Herremans T, Tjhie HT, Bijlmer HA, Koopmans MP, Schneeberger PM, 2012. Evaluation of commonly used serological tests for detection of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in well-defined acute and follow-up sera. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:11101115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Doung-Ngern P, Chuxnum T, Pangjai D, Opaschaitat P, Kittiwan N, Rodtian P, Buameetoop N, Kersh GJ, Padungtod P, 2017. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies among ruminants and occupationally exposed people in Thailand, 2012–2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 786790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    McCaughey C, Murray LJ, McKenna JP, Menzies FD, McCullough SJ, O’Neill HJ, Wyatt DE, Cardwell CR, Coyle PV, 2010. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seroprevalence in cattle. Epidemiol Infect 138: 2127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Cardeñosa N, Sanfeliu I, Font B, Muñoz T, Nogueras MM, Segura F, 2006. Seroprevalence of human infection by Coxiella burnetii in Barcelona (northeast of Spain). Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 3335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Psaroulaki A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Loukaides F, Soteriades E, Konstantinidis A, Papastergiou P, Ioannidou MC, Tselentis Y, 2006. Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25: 576586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    De Lange MM, Schimmer B, Vellema P, Hautvast JL, Schneeberger PM, Van Duijnhoven YT, 2014. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors in sheep farmers and farm residents in The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect 142: 12311244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Schimmer B, Lenferink A, Schneeberger P, Aangenend H, Vellema P, Hautvast J, van Duynhoven Y, 2012. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in dairy goat farmers’ households in The Netherlands, 2009–2010. PLoS One 7: e42364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    de Rooij MM, Schimmer B, Versteeg B, Schneeberger P, Berends BR, Heederik D, van der Hoek W, Wouters IM, 2012. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students. PLoS One 7: e32108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Bjork A et al. 2014. First reported multistate human Q fever outbreak in the United States, 2011. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 14: 111117.

  • 22.

    Boden K, Brasche S, Straube E, Bischof W, 2014. Specific risk factors for contracting Q fever: lessons from the outbreak Jena. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217: 110115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Gilsdorf A, Kroh C, Grimm S, Jensen E, Wagner-Wiening C, Alpers K, 2008. Large Q fever outbreak due to sheep farming near residential areas, Germany, 2005. Epidemiol Infect 136: 10841087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Georgiev M et al. 2013. Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010. Euro Surveill 18: 20407.

  • 25.

    Whitney EA, Massung RF, Kersh GJ, Fitzpatrick KA, Mook DM, Taylor DK, Huerkamp MJ, Vakili JC, Sullivan PJ, Berkelman RL, 2013. Survey of laboratory animal technicians in the United States for Coxiella burnetii antibodies and exploration of risk factors for exposure. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 52: 725731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, 2015. Compendium of veterinary standard precautions for zoonotic disease prevention in veterinary personnel. J Am Vet Med Assoc 247: 12521278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Schimmer B, Schotten N, van Engelen E, Hautvast JL, Schneeberger PM, van Duijnhoven YT, 2014. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk for humans on dairy cattle farms, The Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 417425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Van Leuken JPG, Swart AN, Brandsma J, Terink W, Van de Kassteele J, Droogers P, Sauter F, Havelaar AH, Van der Hoek W, 2016. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions. One Health 2: 7787.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Gale P, Kelly L, Mearns R, Duggan J, Snary EL, 2015. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products—a risk profile and exposure assessment. J Appl Microbiol 118: 10831095.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Cerf O, Condron R, 2006. Coxiella burnetii and milk pasteurization: an early application of the precautionary principle? Epidemiol Infect 134: 946951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Chang CC et al. 2010. Identification of risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) infection in veterinary-associated populations in southern Taiwan. Zoonoses Public Health 57: e95e101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    McCaughey C, McKenna J, McKenna C, Coyle PV, O’Neill HJ, Wyatt DE, Smyth B, Murray LJ, 2008. Human seroprevalence to Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Northern Ireland. Zoonoses Public Health 55: 189194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Whitney EA, Massung RF, Candee AJ, Ailes EC, Myers LM, Patterson NE, Berkelman RL, 2009. Seroepidemiologic and occupational risk survey for Coxiella burnetii antibodies among US veterinarians. Clin Infect Dis 48: 550557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Straily A, Dahlgren FS, Peterson A, Paddock CD, 2017. Surveillance for Q fever endocarditis in the United States, 1999–2015. Clin Infect Dis 65: 18721877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Deyell MW, Chiu B, Ross DB, Alvarez N, 2006. Q fever endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Cardiol 22: 781785.

  • 36.

    Martin-Aspas A, Collado-Perez C, Vela-Manzano L, Fernandez-Gutierrez Del Alamo C, Tinoco-Racero I, Giron-Gonzalez JA, 2015. Acute Q fever and the risk of developing endocarditis. Rev Clin Esp 215: 265271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Kersh GJ, 2013. Antimicrobial therapies for Q fever. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 11: 12071214.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Coxiella burnetii in Jordan

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan;
  • | 2 National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia;
  • | 3 Department of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia;
  • | 4 Ryan Arner Science Consulting, LLC, Freeport, Pennsylvania
Restricted access

This is the first cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii in Jordan. A total of 781 individuals from 11 governorates of Jordan were tested by SERION ELISA classic C. burnetii IgG Phase 2. A validated and pretested questionnaire was used to collect risk factors and demographic data. The overall seroprevalence for C. burnetii was 24.2% (95% CI; 21.3–27.3%). Unadjusted odds ratios showed that governorate of residence, consumption of raw milk, and ownership of sheep, goats, and dogs were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The multivariate logistic regression showed that individuals who own small ruminants had three times greater odds of seropositivity than those who do not own a small ruminant, after controlling for age, gender, raw milk consumption, and ownership of dogs. In addition, individuals who live in Al-Karak, Az-Zarqa, and Al-Tafilah had significantly greater odds of seropositivity compared with individuals who live in the capital city, Amman (OR = 3.6, 4.8, and 2.7, respectively). This study suggests that preventive measures should be practiced in ruminant farms in Jordan to avoid C. burnetii infection. Coxiella burnetii should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile-like illnesses in Jordan, especially among farmers and veterinarians.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Mohammad M. Obaidat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan. E-mail: mmobaidat@just.edu.jo

Financial support: The research study described in this paper was made possible by the financial support provided by the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program of the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Georgian Research and Development Foundation (GRDF) under # A 61053 research project.

Ethics approval: All applicable institutional and national approvals were granted.

Authors’ addresses: Mohammad M. Obaidat and Alaa E. Bani Salman, Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan, E-mails: mmobaidat@just.edu.jo and aebanisalman@just.edu.jo. Lile Malania and Paata Imnadze, National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, GA, E-mails: malanial@yahoo.com and pimnadze@ncdc.ge. Amira A. Roess, Department of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, E-mail: aroess@gwu.edu. Ryan J. Arner, Arner Science Consulting, LLC, Freeport, PA, E-mail: ryan.j.arner@gmail.com.

Save