Queiroz-Telles F, Nucci M, Colombo AL, Tobón A, Restrepo A, 2011. Mycoses of implantation in Latin America: an overview of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Med Mycol 49: 225–236.
Marimon R, Cano J, Gené J, Sutton DA, Kawasaki M, Guarro J, 2007. Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana, three new Sporothrix species of clinical interest. J Clin Microbiol 45: 3198–3206.
Marimon R, Gené J, Cano J, Guarro J, 2008. Sporothrix lurei: a rare fungus from clinical origin. Med Mycol 46: 621–625.
Zhang Y et al. 2015. Phylogeography and evolutionary patterns in Sporothrix spanning more than 14 000 human and animal case reports. Persoonia 35: 1–20.
Rodrigues AM, Cruz Choappa R, Fernandes GF, de Hoog GS, de Camargo ZP, 2016. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals. Fungal Biol 120: 246–264.
Orofino-Costa R, de Macedo PM, Rodrigues AM, Bernardes-Engemann AR, 2017. Sporotrichosis: an update on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, laboratory and clinical therapeutics. An Bras Dermatol 92: 606–620.
Lederer HT, Sullivan E, Crum-Cianflone NF, 2016. Sporotrichosis as na unusual case of osteomyelitis: a case report and review of the literature. Med Mycol Case Rep 11: 31–35.
Ramírez Soto MC, 2018. Differences in clinical ocular outcomes between exogenous and endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Sporothrix: a systematic review of published literature. Br J Ophthalmol 102: 977–982.
Barros MB, de Almeida Paes R, Schubach AO, 2011. Sporothrix schenckii and sporotrichosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 24: 633–654.
Benvegnú AM, Stramari J, Dallazem LND, Chemello RML, Beber AAC, 2017. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 50: 871–873.
Chakrabarti A, Bonifaz A, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Mochizuki T, Li S, 2015. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis. Med Mycol 53: 3–14.
Bustamante B, Campos PE, 2001. Endemic sporotrichosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 14: 145–149.
Lutz A, Splendore A, 1907. Sobre uma micose observada em homens e ratos. Rev Med Trop Sao Paulo 21: 433–450.
Barros MB, Schubach Ade O, do Valle AC, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Conceição-Silva F, Schubach TM, Reis RS, Wanke B, Marzochi KB, Conceição MJ, 2004. Cat-transmitted sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: description of a series of cases. Clin Infect Dis 38: 529–535.
Montenegro H, Rodrigues AM, Dias MA, da Silva EA, Bernardi F, de Camargo ZP, 2014. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil. BMC Vet Res 10: 269.
Sanchotene KO, Madrid IM, Klafke GB, Bergamashi M, Della Terra PP, Rodrigues AM, de Camargo ZP, Xavier MO, 2015. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis. Mycoses 58: 652–658.
da Rosa AC, Scroferneker ML, Vettorato R, Gervini RL, Vettorato G, Weber A, 2005. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis: a study of 304 cases in Brazil. J Am Acad Dermatol 52: 451–459.
Barros MBL, Schubach AO, Schubach TMP, Wanke B, Lambert-Passos SR, 2008. An Epidemic of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: epidemiological aspects of a series of cases. Epidemiol Infect 136: 1192–1196.
Marques GF, Martins AL, Sousa JM, Brandão LS, Wachholz PA, Masuda PY, 2015. Characterization of sporotrichosis cases treated in a dermatologic teaching unit in the state of São Paulo-Brazil, 2003–2013. An Bras Dermatol 90: 273–275.
Falqueto A, Bravim Maifrede S, Araujo Ribeiro M, 2012. Unusual clinical presentation of sporotrichosis in three members of one family. Int J Dermatol 51: 434–438.
Oliveira MM, Maifrede SB, Ribeiro MA, Zancope-Oliveira RM, 2013. Molecular indentification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: 936–938.
de Araujo ML, Rodrigues AM, Fernandes GF, de Camargo ZP, de Hoog GS, 2015. Human sporotrichosis beyond the epidemic front reveals classical transmission types in Espírito Santo, Brazil. Mycoses 58: 485–490.
Madeiros KB, Landeiro LG, Diniz LM, Falqueto A, 2016. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis associated with ocular lesion in an immunocompetent patient. Bras Dermatol 91: 537–539.
Feitoza LR, Stocking M, Resende M, 2001. Natural Resources Information Systems for Rural Development: Approaches for Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Vitoria, Brazil: Incaper, 1–223.
Macotela-Ruiz E, Nochebuena-Ramos E, 2006. Esporotricosis en algunas comunidades rurales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla. Informe de 55 casos (Septiembre 1995–Diciembre 2005). Gac Méd Méx 142: 377–380.
Rubio G, Sánchez G, Porras L, Alvarado Z, 2010. Esporotricosis: prevalência, perfil clínico y epidemiológico en un centro de referencia en Colombia. Rev Iberoam Micol 27: 75–79.
Mata-Essayag S, Delgado A, Colella MT, Landaeta-Nezer ME, Rosello A, Perez de Salazar C, Olaizola C, Hartung C, Magaldi S, Velasquez E, 2013. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela. Int J Dermatol 52: 974–980.
Oyarce JA, García C, Alave J, Bustamante B, 2016. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y de laboratório de esporotricosis en pacientes de un hospital de tercer nível en Lima-Perú, entre los años 1991 y 2014. Rev Chilena Infectol 33: 315–321.
Ramírez Soto MC, 2015. Sporotrichosis: the story of an endemic region in Peru over 28 years (1985 to 2012). PLos One 10: e0127924.
Pappas PG, Tellez I, Deep AE, Nolasco D, Holgado W, Bustamante B, 2000. Sporotrichosis in Peru: description of an area of hyperendemicity. Clin Infect Dis 30: 65–70.
Lyon GM, Zurita S, Casquero J, Holgado W, Guevara J, Brandt ME, Douglas S, Shutt K, Warnock DW, Hajjeh RA; Sporotrichosis in Peru Investigation Team, 2003. Population-based surveillance and a case-control study of risk factors for endemic lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in Peru. Clin Infect Dis 36: 34–39.
Silvagnanam S, Bannan AM, Chen SC, Ralph AP, 2012. Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii infection) in the New South Wales mid-north coast, 2000–2010. Med J Aust 196: 588–590.
Verma S, Verma GK, Singh G, Kanga A, Shanker V, Singh D, Gupta P, Mokta K, Sharma V, 2012. Sporotrichosis in sub-Himalayan India. PLos Negl Trop Dis 6: e1673.
Song Y, Li SS, Zhong SX, Liu YY, Yao L, Huo SS, 2013. Report of 457 sporotrichosis cases from Jilin province, northeast China, a serious endemic region. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 27: 313–318.
Mahajan VK, 2014. Sporotrichosis: an overview and therapeutic options. Dermatol Res Pract 2014: 272376.
Cabezas C, Bustamante B, Holgado W, Begue RE, 1996. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with one daily dose of potassium iodide. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 352–354.
Macedo PM, Lopes-Bezerra LM, Bernardes-Engemann AR, Orofino-Costa R, 2015. New posology of potassium iodide for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis: study of efficacy and safety in 102 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 29: 719–724.
de Lima Barros MB, Schubach AO, de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira R, Martins EB, Teixeira JL, Wanke B, 2011. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with itraconazole—study of 645 patients. Clin Infect Dis 52: e200–e206.
Kauffman CA, Bustamante B, Chapman SW, Pappas PG; Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2007. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of sporotrichosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 45: 1255–1265.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||1008||177||13|
This study discusses a historical patient series and is designed to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Data were derived from patients treated at the Infectious Diseases service of Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital in Vitória, the state capital, from July 1982 to June 2012. A total of 171 patients were diagnosed with sporotrichosis, mostly men (80.7%) with a median age of 33 years and 5 months. We can presume an approximate average incidence rate of 4.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during the studied period. All the patients were involved in occupational or leisure activities with direct contact with soil or plants. Most cases were recorded in the mountainous region of the state during the hot and rainy periods. The average time elapsed from lesion progression to diagnosis was 3 months, with the lymphocutaneous form being the most common (70.2%), followed by the fixed cutaneous form (28.6%). Diagnosis was confirmed in 93.6% of the cases by culturing Sporothrix spp. in Sabouraud dextrose agar, and from the clinical features in the remaining cases. Aspiration of cutaneous nodule secretions was the best method for the collection of clinical specimens for disease diagnosis. A 25% saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) was provided to almost all patients (98.8%), with therapeutic success. In conclusion, in this retrospective study in the state of Espírito Santo, we found that sporotrichosis affects primarily the ≥ 10-year-old population, and the most common presentation is the lymphocutaneous form affecting the lower and upper limbs, and the infection appeared to be acquired predominantly through occupational activities. Treatment with SSKI was safe and effective.
Authors’ addresses: Antonio L. O. Caus, Raphael L. Zanotti, Álvaro A. Faccini-Martínez, and Aloísio Falqueto, Postgraduate Program in Infectious Diseases, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Gabriela Vicentini Paterlini, School of Medicine, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.