• 1.

    Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH, 2014. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 28: 22532264.

  • 2.

    McManus DP, Dunne DW, Sacko M, Utzinger J, Vennervald BJ, Zhou X-N, 2018. Schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Dis Primers 4: 13.

  • 3.

    Payet B, Chaumentin G, Boyer M, Amaranto P, Lemonon-Meric C, Lucht F, 2006. Prolonged latent schistosomiasis diagnosed 38 years after infestation in a HIV patient. Scand J Infect Dis 38: 572575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Catalano S, Sène M, Diouf ND, Fall CB, Borlase A, Léger E, K, Webster JP, 2018. Rodents as natural hosts of zoonotic Schistosoma species and hybrids: an epidemiological and evolutionary perspective from west Africa. J Infect Dis 218: 429433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Colley DG, Loker ES, 2018. New tools for old questions: how strictly human are “human schistosomes”-and does it matter? J Infect Dis 218: 344346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Yin M, Zheng HX, Su J, Feng Z, McManus DP, Zhou XN, Jin L, Hu W, 2015. Co-dispersal of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum and Homo sapiens in the neolithic age. Sci Rep 5: 18058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Young ND et al. 2015. Exploring molecular variation in Schistosoma japonicum in China. Sci Rep 5: 17345.

  • 8.

    Weerakoon KG, Gordon CA, Cai P, Gobert GN, Duke M, Williams GM, McManus DP, 2017. A novel duplex ddPCR assay for the diagnosis of Schistosomiasis japonica: proof of concept in an experimental mouse model. Parasitology 144: 10051015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lier T, Simonsen GS, Haaheim H, Hjelmevoll SO, Vennervald BJ, Johansen MV, 2006. Novel real-time PCR for detection of Schistosoma japonicum in stool. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37: 257264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gobert GN, Chai M, Duke M, McManus DP, 2005. Copro-PCR based detection of Schistosoma eggs using mitochondrial DNA markers. Mol Cell Probes 19: 250254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Weerakoon KG, Gordon CA, Gobert GN, Cai P, McManus DP, 2016. Optimization of a droplet digital PCR assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection: a duplex approach with DNA binding dye chemistry. J Microbiol Methods 125: 1927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Gordon CA, Acosta LP, Gobert GN, Olveda DM, Ross AG, Williams GM, Gray DJ, Harn D, Yuesheng L, McManus DP, 2015. Real-time PCR demonstrates high human prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: implications for surveillance and control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003483.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Weerakoon KG, Gordon CA, Williams GM, Cai P, Gobert GN, Olveda RM, Ross AG, Olveda DU, McManus DP, 2017. Droplet digital PCR diagnosis of human schistosomiasis: parasite cell-free DNA detection in diverse clinical samples. J Infect Dis 216: 16111622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Gordon CA et al. 2015. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Tsang VC, Hancock K, Maddison SE, Beatty AL, Moss DM, 1984. Demonstration of species-specific and cross-reactive components of the adult microsomal antigens from Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum. J Immunol 132: 26072613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Danso-Appiah A, De Vlas SJ, 2002. Interpreting low praziquantel cure rates of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Senegal. Trends Parasitol 18: 125129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ke Q, You-Sheng L, Wei W, Guo-Li Q, Hong-Jun L, Zhen-Kun Y, Zheng-Yang Z, Yuntian X, Jian-Rong D, 2017. Studies on resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel XVII biological characteristics of praziquantel-resistant isolates of Schistosoma japonicum in mice. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 29: 683688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Persistence of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in a Kidney–Liver Transplant Recipient

View More View Less
  • 1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin;
  • | 2 Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia;
  • | 3 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Restricted access

Mitochondrial genome analysis of Schistosoma japonicum suggests that diversity of intermediate host snails drove intra-species divergence during its expansion in Asia. We applied the knowledge of this genomic variation to study an unusual patient we recently diagnosed with schistosomiasis. The patient had not visited any schistosomiasis-endemic countries for more than 35 years and had no idea where she became infected. Unusual clinical features of this patient included the absence of egg granulomas in tissue and persistent noncalcified eggs despite multiple praziquantel (PZQ) treatments over 7 years. A digital droplet polymerase chair reaction (PCR) assay that specifically targets the schistosome 1,4 dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-1 (NADH1) dehydrogenase-1 mitochondrial gene successfully amplified parasite DNA extracted from colon biopsies. DNA sequence analysis of parasite DNA revealed that it was a Philippine strain of S. japonicum. Future molecular studies using stored DNA from patients such as this may provide new insight into why some persons do not respond well to PZQ treatment.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Michael Kron, Division of Infectious Diseases, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., 8th Floor, Hub Bldg., Milwaukee, WI 53226. E-mail: mkron@mcw.edu

Authors’ addresses: Michael Kron, Timothy Bauers, Zouyan Lu, Sheran Mahatme, Janaki Shah, and Kia Saeian, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, E-mails: mkron@mcw.edu, tbaures@mcw.edu, zlu@mcw.edu, smahatme@mcw.edu, janaki.shah@arcw.org, and ksaeian@mcw.edu. Catherine Gordon and Donald P. McManus, Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Berghofer Queensland Institute for Biomedical Research (QIBR), Herston, Australia, E-mails: catherine.gordon@qimrberghofer.edu.au and don.mcmanus@qimrberghofer.edu.au.

Save