Volume 61, Issue 1_Supplement
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A retrospective analysis was made of the parasitologic and fever records of 318 patients who had been infected with the El Limon, Santee Cooper, or McLendon strains of for treatment of neurosyphilis between 1940 and 1963 to determine the development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. The presence of fever ≥ 101 °F and ≥ 104°F, asexual parasite counts ≥ 1,000 and ≥ 10,000/μl, and gametocyte counts ≥ 100/μl and ≥ 1,000/μl are presented. The frequency of fever (number of patients with fever/number of patients remaining in study) for the first 100 days of patent parasitemia, the frequency of parasite counts ≥ 1,000 and ≥ 10,000/μl during the first 100 days of patent parasitemia, and the frequency of gametocyte counts ≥ 100 and ≥ 1,000/μl during the first 100 days of patent parasitemia are presented for 4 groups of patients: 1) sporozoite-induced and 2) trophozoite-induced infections requiring treatment during their primary attack, and 3) sporozoite-induced and 4) trophozoite-induced infections not requiring treatment during the primary attack. For each sporozoite-induced infection, the route of inoculation (bites or syringe), the species of mosquito used, the number of mosquito glands or bites, the intensity of salivary gland infection, and the length of the prepatent period are recorded. Prepatent periods for 109 sporozoite-induced infections ranged from 6 to 28 days. Patients with parasitologic or clinical findings that required suppressive, but non-curative treatment, during the primary attack had higher frequency of fever, parasitemia, and gametocytemia than patients not so treated. Fever was concentrated in the first 2 weeks of patent parasitemia although instances of fever were reported > 100 days after infection. High-density parasitemia was also concentrated early in the infection; instances of parasite counts ≥ 10,000/μl occurred > 75 days after infection. In conclusion, immunity to infection with was shown to develop rapidly. Following primary infection, clinical and parasitologic immunity was evident within 2–3 weeks following the detection of parasites in the peripheral circulation.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Becker FT, Boyd MF, , 1949. Induced malaria as a therapeutic agent. , ed., A Comprehensive Survey of All Aspects of this Group of Diseases from a Global Standpoint Volume II. Chapter 49. Philadelphia and London, W. B. Saunders Company, 11451157. [Google Scholar]
  2. Boisseau FG, , 1832. A Treatise on Fevers. Philadelphia, Carey and Lea. [Google Scholar]
  3. Wagner-Jauregg J, , 1922. The treatment of general paralysis by inoculation of malaria. J Nerv Ment Dis 55: 369375. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bruetsch WL, , 1940. Julius Wagner-Jauregg, M.D. Eminent psychiatrist and originator of the malaria treatment of dementia paralytica. 1957–1940. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 44: 13191322. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. James SP, Shute PG, , 1926. Report on the First Results of Laboratory Work on Malaria in England. Publications of the league of Nations, Health Organization. C. H. (Malaria) 57(1): 130. [Google Scholar]
  6. Nicol WD, , 1927. The care and management of induced malaria. J Ment Sci (April) 6: 19. [Google Scholar]
  7. Nicol WD, Hutton EL, , 1937. Neurosyphilis: its treatment and prophylaxis. Br J Venereal Dis 13: 141166. [Google Scholar]
  8. James SP, , 1931. Some general results of a study of induced malaria in England. Trans R Soc Trap Med Hyg 24: 477538. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Covell G, Nicol WD, , 1951. Clinical, chemotherapeutic and immunologic studies on induced malaria. Br Med J 8: 51. [Google Scholar]
  10. Hall WS, , 1955. General Paresis, The South Carolina State Hospital and the United States Public Health Service Laboratory associated therewith. The Recorder of the Columbia Medical Society of Richland County 19: 714, 2329. [Google Scholar]
  11. Boyd MF, Stratman-Thomas WK, Kitchen SF, Kupper WH, , 1938. A review of the results from the employment of malaria therapy in the treatment of neurosyphilis in the Florida State Hospital. Am J Psychiatry 94: 10991114. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Kupper WH, , 1939. The Malarial Therapy of General Paralysis and Other Conditions. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1155. [Google Scholar]
  13. O’Leary PA, Cole HN, Moore JE, Stokes JH, Wile UJ, Parran T, Vonderlehr RA, Usilton LJ, , 1938. Cooperative clinical studies in the treatment of syphilis : Tabes dorsalis. Veneral Dis Informat 19: 367. [Google Scholar]
  14. Breutsch WL, , 1932. The histopathology of therapeutic (tertian) malaria. Am J Psychiatry 12: 1965. [Google Scholar]
  15. Koop I, Solomon HC, , 1939. The malaria treatment of general paresis: relation to the height, duration and frequency of fever to the clinical and serologic results. Am J Syph Gonor Venereal Dis 25: 585596. [Google Scholar]
  16. Young MD, , 1961. The National Institutes of Health Laboratory at Columbia, South Carolina. Assoc Southeastern Bio Bull 8: 5155. [Google Scholar]
  17. James SP, Nicol WD, Shute PG, , 1932. A study of induced malignant tertian malaria. Proc R Soc Med 25: 11531186. [Google Scholar]
  18. Parkhurst GE, Bowman RW, , 1948. Treatment of neurosyphilis at Hot Springs Medical Center, Arkansas. J Venereal Dis Informat 29: 159166. [Google Scholar]
  19. Collins WE, Jeffery GM, , 1999. A retrospective examination of secondary sporozoite-and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: development of parasitologic and clinical immunity following secondary infection. Am J Trap Med Hyg 61 (suppl.): 2035. [Google Scholar]
  20. Collins WE, Jeffery GM, , 1999. A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum in patients previously infected with heterologous species of Plasmodium: effect on the development of parasitologic and clinical immunity. Am J Trap Med Hyg 61 (suppl.): 3643. [Google Scholar]
  21. Collins WE, Jeffery GM, , 1999. A retrospective examination of the patterns of recrudescence in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum . Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 (suppl.): 4448. [Google Scholar]
  22. Mayne B, Young MD, , 1941. The technique of induced malaria as used in the South Carolina State Hospital. Venereal Dis Informat 22: 271276. [Google Scholar]
  23. Collins WE, Jeffery GM, , 1962. Methods and techniques for the handling of mosquitoes in human and animal malaria studies. Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito Exterminaton Association, 188195. [Google Scholar]
  24. Young MD, McLendon SB, Smarr RG, , 1943. The selective action of thiobismol on induced malaria. JAMA 122: 492494. [Google Scholar]
  25. Young MD, Hardman NF, Burgess RW, Frohne WC, Sabrosky CW, , 1948. The infectivity of native malarias in South Carolina to Anopheles quadrimaculatus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 28: 303311. [Google Scholar]
  26. Jeffery GM, Eyles DE, Young MD, , 1950. The comparative susceptibility of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and two strains of Anopheles albimanus to a Panama strain of Plasmodium falciparum . J Natl Malaria Soc 9: 349355. [Google Scholar]
  27. Eyles DE, Young MD, , 1950. The comparative susceptibility of Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus to a South Carolina strain of Plasmodium falciparum . J Infect Dis 87: 189193. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Earle WC, Perez M, , 1932. Enumeration of parasites in the blood of malarial patients. J Lab Clin Med 17: 11241130. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error