Volume 88, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



, the bacterium linked to Whipple's disease, is involved in acute infections and asymptomatic carriage. In rural Senegal, the prevalence of is generally high but is not homogeneous throughout households in the same village. We studied environmental samples collected in two Senegalese villages and conducted the survey to investigate the difference between households. Overall, the comparison between five households with very high prevalence and three households without any registered cases showed that the only difference was the presence of toilets in the latter (1/5 versus 3/3; = 0.01423). Among the 1,002 environmental specimens (including domestic and synanthropic animals and dust sampled in households) tested for DNA, only four specimens were slightly positive. Humans are currently the predominant identified reservoir and source of in these populations. Limited access to toilets and exposure to human feces facilitate the fecal-oral transmission of .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Fenollar F, Puéchal X, Raoult D, , 2007. Whipple's disease. N Engl J Med 356: 5566.[Crossref]
  2. Moos V, Schneider T, , 2011. Changing paradigms in Whipple's disease and infection with Tropheryma whipplei . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10: 11511158.[Crossref]
  3. Fenollar F, Mediannikov O, Socolovschi C, Bassene H, Diatta G, Richet H, Tall A, Sokhna C, Trape JF, Raoult D, , 2010. Tropheryma whipplei bacteremia during fever in rural West Africa. Clin Infect Dis 51: 515521.[Crossref]
  4. Raoult D, Fenollar F, Rolain JM, Minodier P, Bosdure E, Li W, Garnier JM, Richet H, , 2010. Tropheryma whipplei in children with gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 776782.[Crossref]
  5. Harris JK, De Groote MA, Sagel SD, Zemanick ET, Kapsner R, Penvari C, Kaess H, Deterding RR, Accurso FJ, Pace NR, , 2007. Molecular identification of bacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 2052920533.[Crossref]
  6. Bousbia S, Papazian L, Auffray JP, Fenollar F, Martin C, Li W, Chiche L, La Scola B, Raoult D, , 2010. Tropheryma whipplei in patients with pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 258263.[Crossref]
  7. Fenollar F, Ponge T, La Scola B, Lagier JC, Lefebvre M, Raoult D, , 2011. First isolation of Tropheryma whipplei from bronchoalveolar fluid and clinical implications. J Infect 65: 275278.[Crossref]
  8. Lagier JC, Lepidi H, Raoult D, Fenollar F, , 2010. Systemic Tropheryma whipplei: clinical presentation of 142 patients with infections diagnosed or confirmed in a reference center. Medicine (Baltimore) 89: 337345.[Crossref]
  9. Fenollar F, Trani M, Davoust B, Salle B, Birg ML, Rolain JM, Raoult D, , 2008. Prevalence of asymptomatic Tropheryma whipplei carriage among humans and nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis 197: 880887.[Crossref]
  10. Keita AK, Bassene H, Tall A, Sokhna C, Ratmanov P, Trape JF, Raoult D, Fenollar F, , 2011. Tropheryma whipplei: a common bacterium in rural Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1403.[Crossref]
  11. Fenollar F, Laouira S, Lepidi H, Rolain J, Raoult D, , 2008. Value of Tropheryma whipplei quantitative PCR assay for the diagnosis of Whipple's disease: usefulness of saliva and stool specimens for first line screening. Clin Infect Dis 47: 659667.[Crossref]
  12. Fenollar F, Keita AK, Buffet S, Raoult D, , 2012. High prevalence of Tropheryma whipplei in families of patients and chronic carriers suggests intrafamilial circulation. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 949955.[Crossref]
  13. Schoniger-Hekele M, Petermann D, Weber B, Muller C, , 2007. Tropheryma whipplei in the environment: survey of sewage plant influxes and sewage plant workers. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 20332035.[Crossref]
  14. Keita AK, Brouqui P, Badiaga S, Benkouiten S, Ratmanov P, Raoult D, Fenollar F, , 2012. Tropheryma whipplei prevalence strongly suggests human transmission in homeless shelters. Int J Inf Dis (Epub ahead of print).
  15. Baffone W, Ciaschini G, Pianetti A, Brandi G, Casaroli A, Bruscolini F, , 2001. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other intestinal pathogens in patients with diarrheal disease. Eur J Epidemiol 17: 9799.[Crossref]
  16. Rohner P, Pittet D, Pepey B, Nije-Kinge T, Auckenthaler R, , 1997. Etiological agents of infectious diarrhea: implications for requests for microbial culture. J Clin Microbiol 35: 14271432.
  17. Trape JF, Rogier C, Konate L, Diagne N, Bouganali H, Canque B, Legros F, Badji A, Ndiaye G, Ndiaye P, Brahimi K, Faye O, Druilhe P, Pereira Da Silva L, , 1994. The Dielmo project: a longitudinal study of natural malaria infection and the mechanisms of protective immunity in a community living in a holoendemic area of Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 123137.
  18. Fenollar F, Trape JF, Bassene H, Sokhna C, Raoult D, , 2009. Tropheryma whipplei in fecal samples from children, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 922924.[Crossref]
  19. Li W, Fenollar F, Rolain JM, Fournier PE, Feurle GE, Müller C, Moos V, Marth T, Altwegg M, Calligaris-Maibach RC, Schneider T, Biagi F, La Scola B, Raoult D, , 2008. Genotyping reveals a wide heterogeneity of Tropheryma whipplei . Microbiology 154: 521527.[Crossref]
  20. Mediannikov O, Diatta G, Fenollar F, Sokhna C, Trape JF, Raoult D, , 2010. Tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e821.[Crossref]
  21. Mediannikov O, Fenollar F, Socolovschi C, Diatta G, Sokhna C, Bassene H, Molez JF, Sokhna C, Trape JF, Raoult D, , 2010. Coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e654.[Crossref]
  22. Roucher C, Mediannikov O, Diatta G, Trape JF, Raoult D, , 2012. A new Rickettsia species found in fleas collected from human dwellings and from domestic cats and dogs in Senegal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 360365.[Crossref]
  23. Ratmanov P, Bassene H, Fenollar F, Tall A, Sokhna C, Raoult D, Fenollar F, , 2012. The correlation of Q fever and Coxiella burnetii DNA in household environments. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis [2012 Nov 30, Epub ahead of print].
  24. Maiwald M, Schuhmacher F, Ditton HJ, von Herbay A, , 1998. Environmental occurrence of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii). Appl Environ Microbiol 64: 760762.
  25. Dutly F, Altwegg M, , 2001. Whipple's disease and “Tropheryma whippelii.” Clin Microbiol Rev 14: 561583.[Crossref]
  26. Raoult D, Fenollar F, Birg ML, , 2006. Culture of Tropheryma whipplei from the stool of a patient with Whipple's disease. N Engl J Med 355: 15031505.[Crossref]
  27. La Scola B, Fenollar F, Perreal C, Raoult D, , 2011. Epidemiologic implications of the first isolation and cultivation of Tropheryma whipplei from a saliva sample. Ann Intern Med 154: 443444.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Oct 2012
  • Accepted : 08 Nov 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error