Volume 88, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Household air pollution is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children < 5 years of age. From 2008 to 2010, a Kenyan organization sold ∼2,500 ceramic cookstoves () that produce less visible household smoke than 3-stone firepits. During a year-long observational study, we made 25 biweekly visits to 200 homes to determine stove use and observe signs of acute respiratory infection in children < 3 years of age. Reported stove use included 3-stone firepit only (81.8%), only (15.7%), and both (2.3%). Lower, but not statistically significant, percentages of children in -using households than 3-stone firepit-using households had observed cough (1.3% versus 2.9%, rate ratio [RR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–1.03), pneumonia (0.9% versus 1.7%, RR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24–1.48), and severe pneumonia (0.3% versus 0.6%, RR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.17–2.62). use did not result in significantly lower pneumonia rates. Further research on the health impact of improved cookstoves is warranted.


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  • Received : 14 Aug 2012
  • Accepted : 04 Oct 2012
  • Published online : 09 Jan 2013

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