Volume 88, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



NO MAS (NM) mosquito repellent was evaluated in two farming villages (4 km apart) in the Kassena Nankana district of northern Ghana. We determined its efficacy against local malaria vectors, degree of user acceptance, and its effect on malaria prevalence in households using insecticide-treated bed nets. The average protective efficacy of NM against mosquitoes over 9 hours was 89.6%. Controls averaged 86 bites/person/night versus 9 bites/person/night with the use of NM. Use of repellent was associated with a decrease of absolute malaria prevalence by 19.2% in the repellent village and by 6.5% in the control village (45.5 to 26.3, and 29.5 to 23.0, respectively). The user-acceptance rate of NM repellent was 96.1%. Ten percent (10%) of repellent users reported irritation as the main adverse effect during the period. Eighty-five percent (85%) of the users found the odor of NM appealing and 87% reported no inconvenience in applying the repellent daily.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Anonymous, 1988. Are insect repellents safe? Lancet 332: 610611. [Google Scholar]
  2. Gupta RK, Rutledge LC, , 1994. Role of repellents in vector control and disease prevention. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50: 8286. [Google Scholar]
  3. Curtis CF, , 1992. Personal protection methods against vectors of disease. Rev Med Vet Entomol 80: 543551. [Google Scholar]
  4. Rutlege LC, Sofield RK, Moussa MA, , 1978. A bibliography of diethyl toulamide. Bull Entomol Soc Am 24: 431439. [Google Scholar]
  5. Corbel V, Stankiewicz M, Pennetier C, Fournier D, Stojan J, Girard E, Dimitrov M, Molgó J, Hougard J-M, Lapied B, , 2009. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent DEET. BMC Biol 7: 17411747.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Govindarajan M, Mathivanan T, Elumalai K, Krishnappa K, Anandan A, , 2011. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 109: 353367.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Walker TW, Robert LL, Copeland RA, Githeko AK, Wirtz RA, Githure JI, Klein TA, , 1996. Field evaluation of arthropod repellents, DEET and a piperidine compound, A13-37220, against Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in western Kenya. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12: 172176. [Google Scholar]
  8. Trigg JK, , 1996. Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. in Tanzania. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12: 243246. [Google Scholar]
  9. Carroll SP, Loye J, , 2006. PMD, a registered botanical mosquito repellent with deet-like efficacy. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22: 507514.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000. p-Menthane-3, 8-diol (011550) Fact Sheet. Available at: htttp://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/ingredients/factsheets/factsheet_011550.htm. Accessed May 28, 2012.
  11. Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Wirtz RA, Nasci RS, Brogdon WG, , 2012. Protection against mosquitoes, ticks and other insects and arthropods. CDC Health Information for International Travel (“The Yellow Book”). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [Google Scholar]
  12. Hill N, Lenglet A, Arnez AM, Cainero I, , 2007. Randomized, double-blind control trial of p-menthane diol repellent against malaria in Bolivia. BMJ 335: 1023.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Moore SJ, Darling ST, Sihuincha M, Padilla N, Devine GJ, , 2007. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru. Malar J 6: 101.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Appawu M, Owusu-Agyei S, Dadzie S, Asoala V, Anto F, Koram K, Rogers W, Nkrumah F, Hoffman SL, Fryauff DJ, , 2004. Malaria transmission dynamics at a site in northern Ghana proposed for testing malaria vaccines. Trop Med Int Health 9: 164170.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Koram KA, Owusu-Agyei S, Greg UTZ, Binka FN, Kevin BJ, Hoffman SL, Nkrumah FK, , 2000. Severe anemia in young children after high and low malaria transmission seasons in the Kassena-Nankana district of Northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 670674. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gillies MT, Wilkes TJ, , 1970. Range of attraction of single baits for some West-African mosquitoes. Bull Entomol Res 60: 225235.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Gilles MT, De Meillon B, , 1968. The anophelinae of Africa south of Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). Publ S African Instit Med Res 54: 343 pp. [Google Scholar]
  18. Wirtz RD, Burkot TR, Graves PM, , 1987. Field evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax sporozoites in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea. J Med Entomol 24: 433437.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. World Health Organization, 1975. Part II. Methods and techniques. Manual on Practical Entomology in Malaria. WHO offset publication. Geneva, 13: 191 pp. [Google Scholar]
  20. Barnard DR, Bernier UR, Posey KH, Xue R, , 2002. Repellency of IR3535, KBR3023, para-menthane-3,8-diol, and Deet to black salt marsh mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Everglades National Park. J Med Entomol 39: 895899.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Kiszewski AE, Darling ST, , 2010. Estimating a mosquito repellent's potential to reduce malaria in communities. J Vector Borne Dis 47: 217221. [Google Scholar]
  22. Nedelman J, , 1985. Introductory review: some new thoughts about some old malaria models. Math Biosci 73: 159182.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Pull JH, Grab B, , 1974. A simple epidemiological model for evaluating the malaria inoculation rate and the risk of infection in infants. Bull World Health Organ 51: 507516. [Google Scholar]
  24. Maia MF, Moore SJ, , 2011. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malar J 10 (Suppl 1): S11.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Hill N, Lenglet A, Arnéz AM, Cainero I, , 2007. Randomized, double-blind control trial of p-menthane diol repellent against malaria in Bolivia. BMJ 335: 1023.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Hill N, Lenglet A, Arnéz AM, Carneiro I, , 2007. Plant-based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon. BMJ 335: 1023.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Appawu MA, Dadzie SK, Baffoe-Wilmot A, Wilson MD, , 2001. Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: entomological investigation of transmission dynamics and intensity in communities served by irrigation systems in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 6: 511516.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Binka FN, Kubaje A, Adjuik M, Williams LA, Lengeler C, Maude GH, Armah GE, Kajihara B, Adiamah JH, Smith PG, , 1996. Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Trop Med Int Health 1: 147154.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Oyewole IO, Awolola TS, , 2006. Impact of urbanization on bionomics and distribution of malaria vectors in Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis 43: 173178. [Google Scholar]
  30. Pates H, Curtis C, , 2005. Mosquito behavior and vector control. Annu Rev Entomol 50: 5370.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Jun 2012
  • Accepted : 03 Nov 2012
  • Published online : 06 Feb 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error