1921
Volume 87, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

A total of 30 Powassan virus (POWV) isolates from collected from Bridgeport and North Branford, CT in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 and one earlier isolate from collected in Old Lyme, CT in 1978 were characterized by phylogenetic analysis of their envelope gene sequences. Powassan virus sequences segregated into two major groups termed the deer tick virus (DTV) and Powassan (POW) lineages. The lineage from was POW. The remaining viruses from grouped with the DTV lineage. Powassan viruses from Bridgeport were nearly identical and clustered with a virus strain from a human in New York. Viruses from North Branford were homogeneous and grouped with viruses from Massachusetts, northwestern Connecticut, and Ontario. These findings suggest that POWV was independently introduced into these geographical locations in Connecticut and maintained focally in their respective environments. An improved method of isolation of POWV is described.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0294
2012-10-03
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/4/754.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0294&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ebel GD, , 2010. Update on Powassan virus: emergence of a North American tick-borne flavivirus. Annu Rev Entomol 55: 95110.[Crossref]
  2. McLean DM, Donahue WL, , 1959. Powassan virus: isolation of virus from a fatal case of encephalitis. CMAJ 80: 708711.
  3. U.S. Geological Survey, 2011. Powassan virus maps. Available at: http://diseasemaps.usgs.gov/index.htm. Accessed May 3, 2012.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001. Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis: Maine and Vermont, 1999–2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50: 761764.
  5. Goldfield M, Austin SM, Black HC, Taylor BF, Altman R, , 1973. A non-fatal human case of Powassan virus encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22: 7881.
  6. Hinten SR, Beckett GA, Gensheimer KF, Pritchard E, Courtney TM, Sears SD, Woytowicz JM, Preston DG, Smith RP, Jr Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Holman MS, Lubelczyk CB, Kelso PT, Beelen AP, Stobierski MG, Sotir MJ, Wong S, Ebel G, Kosoy O, Piesman J, Campbell GL, Marfin AA, , 2008. Increased recognition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999–2005. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8: 733740.[Crossref]
  7. Gholam BI, Puksa S, Provias JP, , 1999. Powassan encephalitis: a case report with neuropathology and literature review. CMAJ 161: 14191422.
  8. Ebel GD, Spielman A, Telford SR, 3rd, 2001. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus. J Gen Virol 82: 16571665.[Crossref]
  9. Beasley DW, Suderman MT, Holbrook MR, Barrett AD, , 2001. Nucleotide sequencing and serological evidence that the recently recognized deer tick virus is a genotype of Powassan virus. Virus Res 79: 8189.[Crossref]
  10. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya KR, Chang GJ, , 2001. Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of Powassan-related viruses of North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 671676.
  11. Main AJ, Carey AB, Downs WG, , 1979. Powassan virus in Ixodes cookei and Mustelidae in New England. J Wildl Dis 15: 585591.[Crossref]
  12. Telford SR, 3rd Armstrong PM, Katavolos P, Foppa I, Garcia AS, Wilson ML, Spielman A, , 1997. A new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini . Emerg Infect Dis 3: 165170.[Crossref]
  13. Tavakoli NP, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel GD, Gilmore EJ, Faust PL, , 2009. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis. N Engl J Med 360: 20992107.[Crossref]
  14. Stafford KC, III Denicola AJ, Kilpatrick HJ, , 2003. Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and the tick parasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with reduction of white-tailed deer. J Med Entomol 40: 642652.[Crossref]
  15. Williams SC, Ward JS, , 2006. Exotic seed dispersal by white-tailed deer in southern Connecticut. Nat Areas J 26: 383390.[Crossref]
  16. Williams SC, Ward JS, Worthley TE, Stafford KC, III, 2009. Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae). Environ Entomol 38: 977984.[Crossref]
  17. Ebel GD, Campbell EN, Goethert HK, Spielman A, Telford SR, 3rd, 2000. Enzootic transmission of deer tick virus in New England and Wisconsin sites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 3642.
  18. Pesko KN, Torres-Perez F, Hjelle BL, Ebel GD, , 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Powassan virus in North America. J Gen Virol 91: 26982705.[Crossref]
  19. Brackney DE, Nofchissey RA, Fitzpatrick KA, Brown IK, Ebel GD, , 2008. Stable prevalence of Powassan virus in Ixodes scapularis in a northern Wisconsin focus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 971973.
  20. Calisher CH, , 1994. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev 7: 89116.[Crossref]
  21. Anderson JF, Magnarelli LA, , 1980. Vertebrate host relationships and distribution of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut, USA. J Med Entomol 17: 314323.[Crossref]
  22. Costero A, Grayson MA, , 1996. Experimental transmission of Powassan virus (Flaviviridae) by Ixodes scapularis ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 536546.
  23. Labuda M, Nuttall PA, Kozuch O, Dleckova E, Williams T, Zuffova E, Sabo A, , 1993. Non-viraemic transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus: a mechanism for arbovirus survival in nature. Experientia 49: 802805.[Crossref]
  24. Wallis RC, Brown SE, Kloter KO, Main AJ, Jr, 1978. Erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme arthritis: field study of ticks. Am J Epidemiol 108: 322327.[Crossref]
  25. Karabatsos N, , 1985. International Catalogue of Arboviruses Including Certain Other Viruses of Vertebrates. San Antonio, TX: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
  26. Ebel GD, Foppa I, Spielman A, Telford SR, 2nd, 1999. A focus of deer tick virus transmission in the north-central United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 570574.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0294
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0294
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 May 2012
  • Accepted : 13 Jul 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error