1921
Volume 87, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead () and the cottonmouth (), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0257
2012-12-05
2018-12-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/6/1140.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0257&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bigler WJ, Lassing EB, Buff EE, Prather EC, Beck EC, Hoff GL, , 1976. Endemic eastern equine encephalomyelitis in Florida: a twenty-year analysis, 1955–1974. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 884890. [Google Scholar]
  2. Armstrong PM, Andreadis TG, Anderson JF, Stull JW, Mores CN, , 2008. Tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern United States by phylogenetic analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 291296. [Google Scholar]
  3. Weaver SC, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew LA, Gousset L, Mallampalli V, Holland JJ, Scott TW, , 1994. Evolution of alphaviruses in the eastern equine encephalomyelitis complex. J Virol 68: 158169. [Google Scholar]
  4. Weaver SC, Scott TW, Rico-Hesse R, , 1991. Molecular evolution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in North America. Virology 182: 774784.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Young DS, Kramer LD, Maffei JG, Dusek RJ, Backenson PB, Mores CN, Bernard KA, Ebel GD, , 2008. Molecular epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus, New York. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 454460.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. White GS, Pickett BE, Lefkowitz EJ, Ottendorfer CL, Stark LM, Unnasch TR, , 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of eastern equine encephalitis virus isolates from Florida. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 709717.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Cupp EW, Zhang D, Yue X, Cupp MS, Guyer C, Korves T, Unnasch TR, , 2004. Identification of reptilian and amphibian bloodmeals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 272276. [Google Scholar]
  8. Burkett-Cadena ND, Graham SP, Hassan HK, Guyer C, Eubanks MD, Katholi CR, Unnasch TR, , 2008. Blood feeding patterns of potential arbovirus vectors of the genus Culex targeting ectothermic hosts. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 809815. [Google Scholar]
  9. White G, Ottendorfer C, Graham S, Unnasch TR, , 2011. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 421425.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Graham SP, Chapman T, Hassan HK, White G, Guyer C, Unnasch TR, , 2012. Serosurveillance of eastern equine encephalitis virus in amphibians and reptiles from Alabama, USA. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 540544.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Hsu E, , 1998. Mutation, selection, and memory in B lymphocytes of exothermic vertebrates. Immunol Rev 162: 2536.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Lambert AJ, Martin DA, Lanciotti RS, , 2003. Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays. J Clin Microbiol 41: 379385.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Volchkov VE, Volchkova VA, Netesov SV, , 1991. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus genome [in Russian]. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol May: 815. [Google Scholar]
  14. Florida Department of Health, 2011. Real-time RT-PCR Arbovirology Protocol, 2011. Tampa, FL: Florida Department of Health Bureau of Laboratories. [Google Scholar]
  15. Burkett-Cadena ND, McClure CJ, Ligon RA, Graham SP, Guyer CG, Hill GE, Ditchkoff SS, Eubanks MD, Hassan HK, Unnasch TR, , 2011. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes. PLoS ONE 7: e17681.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Karstad L, , 1961. Reptiles as Possible Reservoir Hosts for Eastern Encephalitis Virus. Transactions of the 26th North American Wildlife Conference, 186202. [Google Scholar]
  17. Dalrymple JM, Young OP, Eldridge BF, Russell PK, , 1972. Ecology of arboviruses in a Maryland freshwater swamp. 3. Vertebrate hosts. Am J Epidemiol 96: 129140.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Gebhardt LP, Hill DW, , 1960. Overwintering of western equine encephalitis virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 104: 695698.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Thomas LA, Eklund CM, , 1962. Overwintering of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in garter snakes experimentally infected by Culex tarsalis . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 109: 421424.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Zimmerman LM, Vogel LA, Bowden RM, , 2010. Understanding the vertebrate immune system: insights from the reptilian perspective. J Exp Biol 213: 661671.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Allen FW, McDaniel EC, , 1937. A study of the relation of temperature to antibody formation in cold-blooded animals. J Immunol 32: 143152. [Google Scholar]
  22. Tait NN, , 1969. The effect of temperature on the immune response in cold-blooded vertebrates. Physiol Zool 42: 2935.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. LeMorvan C, Troutaud D, Deschaux P, , 1998. Differential effects of temperature on specific and nonspecific immune defenses in fish. J Exp Biol 201: 165168. [Google Scholar]
  24. Rätti O, Dufva R, Rauno V, Alatalo RV, , 1993. Blood parasites and male fitness in the Pied Flycatcher. Oecologia 96: 410414.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Daviews CR, Ayres JM, Dye C, Deane LM, , 1991. Malaria infection rate of Amazonian primates increases with body weight and group size. Funct Ecol 5: 655662.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Poulin R, , 1996. Sexual inequalities in helminth infections: a cost of being a male? Am Nat 147: 287295.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Zuk M, McKean KA, , 1996. Sex differences in parasite infections: patterns and processes. Int J Parasitol 26: 10091023.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0257
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0257
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Apr 2012
  • Accepted : 30 Aug 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error