Volume 88, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Samples were collected from 128 symptomatic humans, 83 dogs, 49 mice, and 20 rats (: 16; : 4) in neighborhoods where human leptospirosis have been reported within the principal sea-port city of Colombia. Seroprevalences were assessed against 19 pathogenic, 1 intermediate pathogenic, and 1 saprophytic serogroups. Pathogenic were confirmed using conventional -specific polymerase chain-reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was used for serovar identification. Seroprevalences of 20.4%, 12.5%, 25.0%, 22.9%, and 12.4% were obtained against one to seven different serogroups in mice, , , dogs, and humans, respectively. The DNA was confirmed to be from pathogenic by detecting the gene in 12.5%, 3.7%, and 0.03% of the , dog, and human samples, respectively. The first genetically typed Colombian isolate was obtained from a rat and identified as serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae/Copenhageni.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Desvars A, Cardinale E, Michault A, , 2011. Leptospirosis in small tropical areas. Epidemiol Infect 139: 167188.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 2011. Weekly Epidemiological Record. Available at: http://www.who.int/wer/2011/wer8606.pdf. Accessed January 19, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  3. Reis RB, Ribeiro GS, Felzemburgh RD, Santana FS, Mohr S, Melendez AX, Queiroz A, Santos AC, Ravines RR, Tassinari WS, Carvalho MS, Reis MG, Ko AI, , 2008. Impact of environment and social gradient on Leptospira infection in urban slums. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 23: e228.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Villanueva SY, Ezoe H, Baterna RA, Yanagihara Y, Muto M, Koizumi N, Fukui T, Okamoto Y, Masuzawa T, Cavinta LL, Gloriani NG, Yoshida S, , 2010. Serologic and molecular studies of Leptospira and leptospirosis among rats in the Philippines. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 889898.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Maaciel EA, de Carvalho AL, Nascimento SF, de Matos RB, Gouveia EL, Reis MG, Ko AI, , 2008. Household transmission of Leptospira infection in urban slum communities. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e154.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Epstein PR, Calix Pena O, Blanco-Racedo J, , 1995. Climate and disease in Colombia. Lancet 346: 12431244.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Perez-Garcia J, , 1997. Histopathological findings in necropsies with leptospirosis [in Spanish]. Colomb Med 28: 49. [Google Scholar]
  8. Rodríguez AL, Ferro BE, Varona MX, Santafé M, , 2004. Exposure to Leptospira in stray dogs in the city of Cali. Biomedica 24: 291295.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Agudelo-Flórez P, Londoño AF, Quiroz VH, Angel JC, Moreno N, Loaiza ET, Muñoz LF, Rodas JD, , 2009. Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in urban rodents from a groceries trade center of Medellin, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1: 906910.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Levett PN, Morey R, Galloway RL, Turner D, Steigerwalt AG, Mayer LW, , 2005. Detection of pathogenic leptospires by real-time quantitative PCR. J Med Microbiol 54: 4549.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Herrmann JL, Bellenger E, Perolat P, Baranton G, Saint Girons I, , 1992. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Not I digests of leptospiral DNA: a new rapid method of serovar identification. J Clin Microbiol 30: 16961702. [Google Scholar]
  12. Galloway RL, Levett PN, , 2010. Application and validation of PFGE for serovar identification of Leptospira clinical isolates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14: e824.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. World Health Organization, 2003. Human Leptospirosis: Guidance for Diagnosis, Surveillance and Control. Geneva: World Health Organization and International Leptospirosis Society. [Google Scholar]
  14. Faine S, Adler B, Bolin C, Perolat P, , 1999. Leptospira and Leptospirosis. Melbourne: MediSci. [Google Scholar]
  15. De Faria M, Calderwood M, Athanazio DA, McBride JA, Hartskeer RA, Pereira MM, Ko AI, Reis MG, , 2008. Carriage of Leptospira interrogans among domestic rats from an urban setting highly endemic for leptospirosis in Brazil. Acta Trop 108: 15.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Higa HH, Fujinaka IT, , 1976. Prevalence of rodent and mongoose leptospirosis on the island of Oahu. Public Health Rep 91: 171177. [Google Scholar]
  17. Vinetz JM, Glass GE, Flexner CE, Mueller P, Kaslow DC, , 1996. Sporadic urban leptospirosis. Ann Intern Med 125: 794798.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Webster JP, Ellis WA, McDonald DW, , 1995. Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in wildbrown rats (Rattus norvegicus) on UK farms. Epidemiol Infect 114: 195201.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Priya CG, Hoogendijk KT, Berg M, Rathinam SR, Ahmed A, Muthukkaruppan VR, Hartskeerl RA, , 2007. Field rats form a major infection source of leptospirosis in and around Madurai, India. J Postgrad Med 53: 236240.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Brenner DJ, Kaufmann AF, Sulzer KR, Steigerwalt AG, Rogers FC, Weyant RS, , 1999. Further determination of DNA relatedness between serogroups and serovars in the family Leptospiraceae with a proposal for Leptospira alexanderi sp. nov. and four new Leptospira genomospecies. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49: 839858.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. da Silva EF, Félix SR, Cerqueira GM, Fagundes MQ, Neto AC, Grassmann AA, Amaral MG, Gallina T, Dellagostin OA, , 2010. Preliminary characterization of Mus musculus-derived pathogenic strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum in a hamster model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 336337.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Yang CW, Pan MJ, Wu MS, Chen YM, Tsen YT, Lin CL, Wu CH, Huang CC, , 1997. Leptospirosis: an ignored cause of acute renal failure in Taiwan. Am J Kidney Dis 30: 840845.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Levett PN, , 2003. Usefulness of serologic analysis as a predictor of the infecting serovar in patients with severe leptospirosis. Clin Infect Dis 36: 447452.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Perolat P, Lecuyer I, Postic D, Baranton G, , 1993. Diversity of ribosomal DNA fingerprints of Leptospira serovars provides a database for subtyping and species assignation. Res Microbiol 144: 515.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Macías-Herrera JC, Vergara C, Romero-Vivas C, Falconar A, , 2005. Presentation of leptospirosis in Atlántico state (Colombia) from January 1999 to March 2004 [in Spanish]. Salud Uninorte 20: 1829. [Google Scholar]
  26. Agudelo-Florez P, Restrepo-Jaramillo BN, Arboleda-Naranjo M, , 2007. Leptospirosis in Uraba, Antioquia, Colombia: a seroepidemiological and risk factor survey in the urban population [in Spanish]. Cad Saude Publica 23: 20942102.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Matthias MA, Ricaldi JN, Cespedes M, Diaz MM, Galloway RL, Saito M, Steigerwalt AG, Patra KP, Ore CV, Gotuzzo E, Gilman RH, Levett PN, Vinetz JM, , 2008. Human leptospirosis caused by a new, antigenically unique Leptospira associated with a Rattus species reservoir in the Peruvian Amazon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e213.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Levett PN, Walton D, Waterman LD, Whittington CU, Mathison GE, Everard CO, , 1998. Surveillance of leptospiral carriage by feral rats in Barbados. West Indian Med J 47: 1517. [Google Scholar]
  29. Matthias MA, Levett PN, , 2002. Leptospiral carriage by mice and mongooses on the island of Barbados. West Indian Med J 51: 1013. [Google Scholar]
  30. Songer JG, Chilelli CJ, Reed RE, Trautman RJ, , 1983. Leptospirosis in rodents from an arid environment. Am J Vet Res 44: 19731976. [Google Scholar]
  31. Rahelinirina S, Léon A, Harstskeerl RA, Sertour N, Ahmed A, Raharimanana C, Ferquel E, Garnier M, Chartier L, Duplantier JM, Rahalison L, Cornet M, , 2010. First isolation and direct evidence for the existence of large small-mammal reservoirs of Leptospira spp. in Madagascar. PLoS ONE 5: e14111.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Romero EC, Blanco RM, Galloway RL, , 2009. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for the discrimination of leptospiral isolates in Brazil. Lett Appl Microbiol 48: 623627.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 10 Apr 2012
  • Accepted : 07 Oct 2012
  • Published online : 09 Jan 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error