Volume 87, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Hainan Province is the main area threatened by malaria in China. However, the epidemiologic patterns of malaria in this region are not yet defined. In this study, we determined the spatio-temporal distribution and variation of and malaria in Hainan during 1995–2008 by using wavelet and cluster quantitative approaches. The results indicated a decreasing secular trend and obvious seasonal fluctuation of malaria in Hainan. In addition, the characteristic annual peak of malaria could not be detected after 2005. The southcentral region of Hainan has remained an area of relatively high malaria risk, but the incidence of malaria increased significantly in the southeast and southwest regions during 2002–2008. These findings identify epidemic patterns of malaria in Hainan, and are applicable for designing an effective and dynamic public health campaign to combat malaria in this region.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2010. World Malaria Report 2010. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241564106/en/. Accessed July 1, 2011.
  2. Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, 2010. Chinese Health Statistics Yearbook 2010. Available at: http://www.moh.gov.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/zwgkzt/ptjnj/year2010/index2010.html. Accessed October 1, 2011.
  3. Lin H, Lu L, Tian L, Zhou S, Wu H, Bi Y, Ho S, Liu Q, , 2009. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China. Malar J 8: 130.[Crossref]
  4. Zhou S, Tang L, Sheng H, Wang Y, , 2006. Malaria situation in the People's Republic of China in 2004. Zhong Guo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 24: 13.
  5. Xiao D, Long Y, Wang S, Fang L, Xu D, Wang G, Li L, Cao W, Yan Y, , 2010. Spatiotemporal distribution of malaria and the association between its epidemic and climate factors in Hainan, China. Malar J 9: 185.[Crossref]
  6. Cazelles B, Chavez M, Magny GC, Guegan JF, Hales S, , 2007. Time-dependent spectral analysis of epidemiological time-series with wavelets. J R Soc Interface 4: 625636.[Crossref]
  7. Grenfell BT, Bjornstad ON, Kappey J, , 2001. Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics. Nature 414: 716723.[Crossref]
  8. Broutin H, Guegan J, Elguero E, Simondon F, Cazelles B, , 2005. Large-scale comparative analysis of pertussis population dynamics: periodicity, synchrony, and impact of vaccination. Am J Epidemiol 161: 11591167.[Crossref]
  9. Pascual M, Cazelles B, Bouma MJ, Chaves LF, Koelle K, , 2008. Shifting patterns: malaria dynamics and rainfall variability in an African highland. Proc Biol Sci 275: 123132.[Crossref]
  10. Chaves LF, Pascual M, , 2006. Climate cycles and forecasts of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a nonstationary vector-borne disease. PLoS Med 3: 13201328.[Crossref]
  11. Snow RW, Guerra CA, Noor AM, Myint HY, Hay SI, , 2005. The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 434: 214217.[Crossref]
  12. Hay SI, Guerra CA, Gething PW, Patil AP, Tatem AJ, Noor AM, Kabaria GW, Manh BH, Elyazar IRF, Brooker S, Smith DL, Moyeed RA, Snow RW, , 2009. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007. PLoS Med 6: 286302.[Crossref]
  13. Munyekenye OG, Githeko AK, Zhou G, Mushinzimana E, Minakawa N, Yan G, , 2005. Plasmodium falciparum spatial analysis, western Kenya highlands. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 15711577.[Crossref]
  14. Hui FM, Xu B, Chen ZW, Cheng X, Liang L, Huang HB, Fang LQ, Yang H, Zhou HN, Yang HL, Zhou XN, Cao WC, Gong P, , 2009. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Yunnan Province, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 503509.
  15. Clements AC, Barnett AG, Cheng ZW, Snow RW, Zhou HN, , 2009. Space-time variation of malaria incidence in Yunnan Province, China. Malar J 8: 180.[Crossref]
  16. Zhang W, Wang L, Fang L, Ma J, Xu Y, Jiang J, Hui F, Wang J, Liang S, Yang H, Cao W, , 2008. Spatial analysis of malaria in Anhui Province, China. Malar J 7: 206.[Crossref]
  17. Wang LP, Xu YF, Wang JJ, Xu X, Zhang WY, Fang LQ, Ma JQ, Cao WC, Jin SG, , 2008. Spatial-temporal analysis on the distribution of malaria in Anhui, 1990–2006. Ji Bing Kong Zhi Za Zhi 12: 156159.
  18. Wen L, Xu DZ, Wang SQ, Li CX, Zhang ZY, Su YQ, , 2003. Epidemic of malaria in Hainan Province and modeling malaria incidence with meteorological parameters. Ji Bing Kong Zhi Za Zhi 7: 520524.
  19. Fang L, Yan L, Liang S, de Vlas SJ, Feng D, Han X, Zhao W, Xu B, Bian L, Yang H, Gong P, Richardus JH, Cao W, , 2006. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China. BMC Infect Dis 6: 77.[Crossref]
  20. Kulldorff M, Feuer EJ, Miller BA, Freedman LS, , 1997. Breast cancer clusters in the northeast United States: a geographic analysis. Am J Epidemiol 146: 161170.[Crossref]
  21. Daubechies I, , 1992. Ten Lectures on Wavelets. Series in Applied Mathematics Monographs. Philadelphia, PA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 116.[Crossref]
  22. Kulldorff M, , 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Comm Statist Theory Methods 26: 14811496.[Crossref]
  23. Kulldorff M, , 2006. SatScan User Guide for Version 7.0. Available at: http://www.satscan.org/. Accessed March 9, 2010.
  24. Chaput EK, Meek JI, Heimer R, , 2002. Spatial analysis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis near Lyme, Connecticut. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 943948.[Crossref]
  25. Pitzer VE, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Steiner C, Panozzo CA, Alonso WJ, Miller MA, Glass RI, Glasser JW, Parashar UD, Grenfell BT, , 2009. Demographic variability, vaccination, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus epidemics. Science 325: 290294.[Crossref]
  26. Wang S, , 2005. Evaluation of feasibility in elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Hainan Province. Zhong Guo Re Dai Yi Xue 5: 17791781.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Mar 2012
  • Accepted : 05 Jul 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error